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Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-4443-3888-1
572 pages
January 2013, Wiley-Blackwell
Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition (1444338889) cover image

Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/vandermaarelfranklin/vegetationecology.

Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition
 is a comprehensive, integrated account of plant communities and their environments. Written by leading experts in their field from four continents, the second edition of this book:

  • covers the composition, structure, ecology, dynamics, diversity, biotic interactions and distribution of plant communities, with an emphasis on functional adaptations;
  •  reviews modern developments in vegetation ecology in a historical perspective;
  • presents a coherent view on vegetation ecology while integrating population ecology, dispersal biology, soil biology,
  • ecosystem ecology and global change studies;
  • tackles applied aspects of vegetation ecology, including management of communities and invasive species;
  • includes new chapters addressing the classification and mapping of vegetation, and the significance of plant functional types

Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers and teachers in plant ecology, geography, forestry and nature conservation. Vegetation Ecology takes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach and will be welcomed as an essential reference for plant ecologists the world over.

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Contributors xi

Preface xv

1 Vegetation Ecology: Historical Notes and Outline 1
Eddy van der Maarel and Janet Franklin

1.1 Vegetation ecology at the community level 1

1.2 Internal organization of plant communities 14

1.3 Structure and function in plant communities and ecosystems 17

1.4 Human impact on plant communities 20

1.5 Vegetation ecology at regional to global scales 22

1.6 Epilogue 24

2 Classifi cation of Natural and Semi-natural Vegetation 28
Robert K. Peet and David W. Roberts

2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 Classifi cation frameworks: history and function 30

2.3 Components of vegetation classifi cation 33

2.4 Project planning and data acquisition 35

2.5 Data preparation and integration 40

2.6 Community entitation 42

2.7 Cluster assessment 52

2.8 Community characterization 54

2.9 Community determination 58

2.10 Classifi cation integration 60

2.11 Documentation 63

2.12 Future directions and challenges 64

3 Vegetation and Environment: Discontinuities and Continuities 71
Mike P. Austin

3.1 Introduction 71

3.2 Early history 72

3.3 Development of numerical methods 74

3.4 Current theory: continuum and community 78

3.5 Current indirect ordination methods 86

3.6 Species distribution modelling or direct gradient analysis 93

3.7 Synthesis 101

4 Vegetation Dynamics 107
Steward T.A. Pickett, Mary L. Cadenasso and Scott J. Meiners

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 The causes of vegetation dynamics 108

4.3 Succession in action: interaction of causes in different places 114

4.4 Common characteristics across successions 131

4.5 Summary 134

5 Clonality in the Plant Community 141
Brita M. Svensson, Hakan Rydin and Bengt A. Carlsson

5.1 Modularity and clonality 141

5.2 Where do we fi nd clonal plants? 145

5.3 Habitat exploitation by clonal growth 148

5.4 Transfer of resources and division of labour 151

5.5 Competition and co-existence in clonal plants 153

5.6 Clonality and herbivory 158

6 Seed Ecology and Assembly Rules in Plant Communities 164
Peter Poschlod, Mehdi Abedi, Maik Bartelheimer, Juliane Drobnik, Sergey Rosbakh and Arne Saatkamp

6.1 Ecological aspects of diaspore regeneration 164

6.2 Brief historical review 166

6.3 Dispersal 167

6.4 Soil seed bank persistence 177

6.5 Germination and establishment 180

6.6 Ecological databases on seed ecological traits 186

6.7 Seed ecological spectra of plant communities 186

6.8 Seed ecological traits as limiting factors for plant species occurrence and assembly 187

6.9 Seed ecological traits and species co-existence in plant communities 191

7 Species Interactions Structuring Plant Communities 203
Jelte van Andel

7.1 Introduction 203

7.2 Types of interaction 204

7.3 Competition 205

7.4 Allelopathy 211

7.5 Parasitism 212

7.6 Facilitation 215

7.7 Mutualism 218

7.8 Complex species interactions affecting community structure 221

7.9 Assembly rules 225

8 Terrestrial Plant-Herbivore Interactions: Integrating Across Multiple Determinants and Trophic Levels 233
Mahesh Sankaran and Samuel J. McNaughton

8.1 Herbivory: pattern and process 233

8.2 Coping with herbivory 241

8.3 The continuum from symbiotic to parasitic 247

8.4 Community level effects of herbivory 250

8.5 Integrating herbivory with ecosystem ecology 255

9 Interactions Between Higher Plants and Soil-dwelling Organisms 260
Thomas W. Kuyper and Ron G.M. de Goede

9.1 Introduction 260

9.2 Ecologically important biota in the rhizosphere 261

9.3 The soil community as cause and consequence of plant community composition 263

9.4 Specifi city and selectivity 265

9.5 Feedback mechanisms 268

9.6 Soil communities and invasive plants 274

9.7 Mutualistic root symbioses and nutrient partitioning in plant communities 275

9.8 Mycorrhizal networks counteracting plant competition? 278

9.9 Pathogenic soil organisms and nutrient dynamics 279

9.10 After description 279

10 Vegetation and Ecosystem 285
Christoph Leuschner

10.1 The ecosystem concept 285

10.2 The nature of ecosystems 287

10.3 Energy fl ow and trophic structure 289

10.4 Biogeochemical cycles 299

11 Diversity and Ecosystem Function 308
Jan Leps

11.1 Introduction 308

11.2 Measurement of species diversity 309

11.3 Determinants of species diversity in the plant community 315

11.4 Patterns of species richness along gradients 319

11.5 Stability 324

11.6 On the causal relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning 329

12 Plant Functional Types and Traits at the Community, Ecosystem and World Level 347
Andrew N. Gillison

12.1 The quest for a functional paradigm 347

12.2 Form and function: evolution of the 'functional' concept in plant ecology 348

12.3 The development of functional typology 348

12.4 Plant strategies, trade-offs and functional types 355

12.5 The mass ratio hypothesis 361

12.6 Functional diversity and complexity 362

12.7 Moving to a trait-based ecology – response and effect traits 363

12.8 Plant functional types and traits as bioindicators 370

12.9 Environmental monitoring 372

12.10 Trait-based climate modelling 374

12.11 Scaling across community, ecosystem and world level 376

12.12 Discussion 377

13 Plant Invasions and Invasibility of Plant Communities 387
Marcel Rejmanek, David M. Richardson and Petr Pysek

13.1 Introduction 387

13.2 Defi nitions and major patterns 388

13.3 Invasibility of plant communities 393

13.4 Habitat compatibility 401

13.5 Propagule pressure and residence time 402

13.6 What are the attributes of successful invaders? 404

13.7 Impact of invasive plants, justifi cation and prospects of eradication projects 413

14 Vegetation Conservation, Management and Restoration 425
Jan P. Bakker

14.1 Introduction 425

14.2 From agricultural exploitation to nature conservation 427

14.3 Vegetation management in relation to a hierarchy of environmental processes 430

14.4 Laissez-faire and the wilderness concept 430

14.5 Management and restoration imply setting targets 433

14.6 Setting targets implies monitoring 437

14.7 Effects of management and restoration practices 438

14.8 Constraints in management and restoration 444

14.9 Strategies in management and restoration 447

15 Vegetation Types and Their Broad-scale Distribution 455
Elgene O. Box and Kazue Fujiwara

15.1 Introduction: vegetation and plant community 455

15.2 Form and function, in plants and vegetation 456

15.3 Vegetation types 464

15.4 Distribution of the main world vegetation types 466

15.5 Regional vegetation 469

15.6 Vegetation modelling and mapping at broad scales 472

15.7 Vegetation and global change 479

16 Mapping Vegetation from Landscape to Regional Scales 486
Janet Franklin

16.1 Introduction 486

16.2 Scale and vegetation mapping 489

16.3 Data for vegetation mapping 490

16.4 Methods for vegetation mapping 495

16.5 Examples of recent vegetation maps illustrating their different uses 500

16.6 Dynamic vegetation mapping 501

16.7 Future of vegetation mapping research and practice 502

17 Vegetation Ecology and Global Change 509
Brian Huntley and Robert Baxter

17.1 Introduction 509

17.2 Vegetation and climatic change 510

17.3 Confounding effects of other aspects of global change 518

17.4 Conclusions 525

References 527

Index 531

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Eddy van der Maarel is a vegetation ecologist and has made a major contribution to the amalgamation of Anglo-American and European approaches in vegetation science. He is one the founding editors of the Journal of Vegetation Science. He is a member of the Royal Academies of Science of The Netherlands and Sweden and a honorary member of the British Ecological Society, the International Association of Vegetation Science and several other societies. 

Janet Franklin (Professor, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University) is a vegetation scientist and landscape ecologist trained in geography and ecology. She is a former Associate Editor of the Journal of Vegetation Science and Applied Vegetation Science. She, like Eddy, is particularly interested in vegetation dynamics in response to natural and human disturbance, and the application of vegetation science in nature conservation and planning.

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“Summing Up: Recommended.  Graduate students and above.”  (Choice, 1 October 2013)

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