Fish Cognition and Behavior, 2nd Edition
June 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
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List of Contributors.
1 Fish Cognition and Behaviour (Brown, Laland and Krause).
1.2 Contents of this book.
2 Learning of Foraging Skills by Fish (Warburton and Hughes).
2.2 Some factors affecting the learning process.
2.2.3 Stimulus attractiveness.
2.2.4 Exploration and sampling.
2.2.5 Attention and simple association.
2.2.7 Memory systems and skill transfer.
2.3 Patch use and probability matching.
2.5 Tracking environmental variation.
2.7 Learning and fish feeding: some applications.
3 Learned Defences and Counterdefences in Predator–Prey Interactions (Kelley and Magurran).
3.2 The predator–prey sequence.
22.214.171.124 Avoiding dangerous habitats.
126.96.36.199 Changing activity patterns.
188.8.131.52 Sensory perception.
184.108.40.206 Associative learning.
220.127.116.11 Learning specificity.
18.104.22.168 Search images.
22.214.171.124 Aposematism and mimicry.
3.2.4 Approach .
126.96.36.199 Pursuit deterrence.
188.8.131.52 Gaining information about the predator.
184.108.40.206 Social learning.
220.127.116.11 Reactive distance and escape speed and trajectory.
18.104.22.168 Survival benefits/capture success.
3.3 Summary and discussion .
4 Learning about Danger: Chemical Alarm Cues and Threat-Sensitive Assessment of Predation Risk by Fishes (Brown, Ferrari and Chivers).
4.2 Chemosensory cues as sources of information.
4.2.1 Learning, innate responses and neophobia.
4.2.2 Learned predator recognition through conditioning with alarm cues.
4.3 Variable predation risk and flexible learning.
4.3.1 Assessing risk in time.
4.3.2 Sensory complementation and threat-sensitive learning.
4.4 Generalisation of risk.
4.4.1 Generalising of predator cues.
4.4.2 Generalisation of non-predator cues.
4.5 Predator recognition continuum hypothesis.
4.5.1 Ecological selection for innate versus learned recognition of predators.
4.5.2 Ecological selection for generalised learning.
4.6 Retention: the forgotten component of learning.
4.7 Conservation, management and learning.
4.7.1 Conditioning predator recognition skills.
4.7.2 Anthropogenic constraints.
4.7.3 Field-based studies.
5 Learning and Mate Choice (Witte and N¨obel).
5.2 Sexual imprinting.
5.2.1 Does sexual imprinting promote sympatric speciation in fishes?
5.3 Learning after reaching maturity.
5.4 Eavesdropping .
5.4.1 Eavesdropping and mate choice.
5.4.2 Benefits of eavesdropping.
5.4.3 The audience effect.
5.5 Mate-choice copying.
5.5.1 Mate-choice copying – first experimental evidence and consequence.
5.5.2 Mate-choice copying – evidence from the wild.
5.5.3 Mate-choice copying when living in sympatry or allopatry.
5.5.4 Mate-choice copying – the role of the early environment.
5.5.5 Quality of the model fish.
5.6 Social mate preferences overriding genetic preferences.
5.6.1 Indications from guppies.
5.6.2 Indications from sailfin mollies.
5.7 Cultural evolution through mate-choice copying.
5.8 Does mate-choice copying support the evolution of a novel male trait?
5.8.1 Theoretical approaches.
5.8.2 Experimental approaches.
5.9 Is mate-choice copying an adaptive mate-choice strategy?
5.9.1 Benefits of mate-choice copying.
5.9.2 Costs of mate-choice copying.
6 Aggressive Behaviour in Fish: Integrating Information about
Contest Costs (Hsu, Earley and Wolf).
6.2 Information about resource value.
6.3 Information about contest costs.
6.3.1 Assessing fighting ability.
6.3.2 Information from past contests.
22.214.171.124 Winner and loser effects.
126.96.36.199 Individual recognition.
188.8.131.52 Social eavesdropping.
6.3.3 Integrating different types of cost-related information.
6.4 Physiological mechanisms.
6.5 Conclusions and future directions.
7 Personality Traits and Behaviour (Budaev and Brown).
7.2 Observation and description of personality.
7.2.1 Current terminology.
184.108.40.206 Coping styles.
220.127.116.11 Behavioural syndromes.
7.2.3 Labelling personality traits; construct. validity
7.2.4 Objective and subjective measurements of personality.
7.2.5 Modern terminology and statistical approaches.
7.3 Proximate causation.
7.4 Ontogeny and experience.
7.5 Is personality adaptive?
7.5.1 Frequency- and density-dependent selection.
7.5.2 State-dependent models.
7.7 Wider implications.
7.7.1 Fish production and reproduction.
7.7.2 Personality and population dynamics.
8 The Role of Learning in Fish Orientation (Odling-Smee, Simpson and Braithwaite).
8.2 Why keep track of location?
8.3 The use of learning and memory in orientation
8.4 Learning about landmarks.
8.5 Compass orientation.
8.6 Water movements.
8.7 Inertial guidance and internal ‘clocks’.
8.8 Social cues.
8.9 How flexible is orientation behaviour?
8.9.1 When to learn?
8.9.2 What to learn?
8.9.3 Spatial learning capacity.
8.10 Salmon homing – a case study.
9 Social Recognition of Conspecifics (Griffiths and Ward).
9.2 Recognition of familiars.
9.2.1 Laboratory studies of familiarity.
9.2.2 Mechanisms of familiarity recognition.
9.2.3 Functions of associating with familiar fish.
9.2.4 Familiarity in free-ranging fishes.
9.2.5 Determinants of familiarity.
9.3 Familiarity or kin recognition?
9.3.1 Kin recognition theory.
9.3.2 Evidence for kin recognition from laboratory studies.
9.3.3 Advantages of kin discrimination.
9.3.4 Kin association in the wild.
9.3.5 Explaining the discrepancies between laboratory and field.
9.3.6 Kin avoidance.
10 Social Organisation and Information Transfer in Schooling Fish (Ioannou, Couzin, James, Croft and Krause).
10.2 Collective motion.
10.3 Emergent collective motion in the absence of external stimuli.
10.4 Response to internal state and external stimuli: Information processing within schools.
10.4.1 Collective response to predators.
10.4.2 Mechanisms and feedback in information transfer.
10.4.3 Information transfer during group foraging and migration.
10.5 Informational status, leadership and collective decision-making in fish schools.
10.6 The structure of fish schools and populations.
10.7 Social networks and individual identities.
10.8 Community structure in social networks.
10.9 Conclusions and future directions.
11 Social Learning in Fishes (Brown and Laland).
11.2 Anti-predator behaviour.
11.3 Migration and orientation.
11.5 Mate choice.
11.7 Trade-offs in reliance on social and asocial sources of information.
11.8 Concluding remarks.
12 Cooperation and Cognition in Fishes (Alfieri and Dugatkin).
12.2 Why study cooperation in fishes?
12.3 Cooperation and its categories.
12.3.1 Category – kin selection.
18.104.22.168 Cognition and kin selection.
22.214.171.124 Example of kin selected cooperation: Cooperative breeding.
126.96.36.199 Example of kin selected cooperation: Conditional territory defence.
12.3.2 Category – reciprocity.
188.8.131.52 Cognition and reciprocity.
184.108.40.206 Example of reciprocity: Egg trading
220.127.116.11 Example of reciprocity: Predator inspection.
18.104.22.168 Example of reciprocity: Interspecific cleaning behaviour.
12.3.3 Category – by-product mutualism
22.214.171.124 Cognition and by-product mutualism.
126.96.36.199 Example of by-product mutualism: Cooperative foraging.
12.3.4 Category – trait group selection.
188.8.131.52 Cognition and trait group selection.
184.108.40.206 Example of trait group selected cooperation: Predator inspection.
13 Machiavellian Intelligence in Fishes (Bshary).
13.2 Evidence for functional aspects of Machiavellian intelligence.
13.2.1 Information gathering about relationships between other group members.
13.2.2 Predator inspection.
13.2.3 Group-living cichlids.
13.2.4 Machiavellian intelligence in cleaning mutualisms.
220.127.116.11 Categorisation and individual recognition of clients.
18.104.22.168 Building up relationships between cleaners and resident clients.
22.214.171.124 Use of tactile stimulation by cleaners to manipulate client decisions and reconcile after conflicts.
126.96.36.199 Audience effects in response to image scoring and tactical deception.
188.8.131.52 Punishment by males during pair inspections.
13.3 Evidence for cognitive mechanisms in fishes.
13.3.1 What cognitive abilities might cleaners need to deal with their clients?
13.3.2 Other cognitive mechanisms.
13.4.1 Future avenues I: How Machiavellian is fish behaviour?
13.4.2 Future avenues II: Relating Machiavellian-type behaviour to brain size evolution.
13.4.3 Extending the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis to general social intelligence.
14 Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Fish (Bisazza and Brown).
14.2 Lateralized functions in fish.
14.2.1 Antipredator behavior
184.108.40.206 Predator inspection.
220.127.116.11 Predator evasion.
18.104.22.168 Fast escape response.
14.2.2 Mating behavior.
14.2.3 Aggression .
14.2.4 Shoaling and social recognition.
14.2.5 Foraging behavior.
14.2.6 Exploration and response to novelty.
14.2.7 Homing and spatial abilities.
14.3 Individual differences in lateralization.
14.3.1 Hereditary basis of lateralization.
14.3.2 Sex differences in lateralization.
14.3.3 Environmental factors influencing development of lateralization.
14.3.4 Lateralization and personality.
14.4 Ecological consequences of lateralization of cognitive functions.
14.4.1 Selective advantages of cerebral lateralization.
14.4.2 Costs of cerebral lateralization.
14.4.3 Maintenance of intraspecific variability in the degree of lateralization.
14.4.4 Evolutionary significance of population biases in laterality.
14.5 Summary and future research.
15 Brain and Cognition in Teleost Fish (Broglio, G´omez, Dur´an, Salas and Rodr´iguez).
15.2 Classical conditioning.
15.2.1 Delay motor classical conditioning and teleost fish cerebellum.
15.2.2 Role of the teleost cerebellum and telencephalic pallium in trace motor classical conditioning.
15.3 Emotional learning.
15.3.1 Role of the medial pallium in avoidance conditioning and taste aversion learning.
15.3.2 Teleost cerebellum and fear conditioning.
15.4 Spatial cognition.
15.4.1 Allocentric spatial memory representations in teleost fishes.
15.4.2 Role of the teleost telencephalon in egocentric and allocentric spatial navigation.
15.4.3 Map-like memories and hippocampal pallium in teleost fishes.
15.4.4 Neural mechanisms for egocentric spatial orientation.
15.5 Concluding remarks.
16 Fish Behaviour, Learning, Aquaculture and Fisheries (Fern¨o, Huse, Jakobsen, Kristiansen and Nilsson).
16.1 Fish learning skills in the human world.
16.2.1 Spatial dynamics.
22.214.171.124 Learning skills and movement.
126.96.36.199 Social learning of migration pattern.
188.8.131.52 Implications of learning for fisheries management.
16.2.2 Fish capture.
184.108.40.206 Natural variations in spatial distribution and behaviour. .
220.127.116.11 Avoidance and attraction before fishing
18.104.22.168 Before physical contact with the gear.
22.214.171.124 After physical contact with the gear.
126.96.36.199 Behaviour after escaping the gear and long-term consequences.
16.2.3 Abundance estimation.
16.3.2 Habituation, conditioning and anticipation.
16.3.3 Pavlovian learning – delay and trace conditioning.
16.3.4 Potential use of reward conditioning in aquaculture.
16.3.5 Operant learning.
16.3.6 Individual decisions and collective behaviour.
16.4 Stock enhancement and sea-ranching.
16.5 Escapees from aquaculture .
16.6 Capture-based aquaculture.
16.7 Conclusions and perspectives.
17 Cognition and Welfare (Sneddon).
17.1.1 Fish welfare.
17.1.2 Preference and avoidance testing.
17.1.3 Behavioural flexibility and intraspecific variation.
17.2 What is welfare?
17.2.1 Sentience and consciousness.
17.2.2 Cognition and welfare.
17.3 What fishes want.
17.3.1 Preference tests.
188.8.131.52 Physical habitat.
184.108.40.206 Social interactions.
17.4 What fishes do not want.
17.5 Pain and fear in fish.
17.6 Personality in fish.
17.7 Wider implications for the use of fish.
17.7.3 Recreational fishing.
17.7.5 Companion fish.