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Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-4443-4711-1
612 pages
December 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants, 2nd Edition (144434711X) cover image
The output from world aquaculture, a multi-billion dollar global industry, continues to rise at a very rapid rate and it is now acknowledged that it will take over from fisheries to become the main source of animal and plant products from aquatic environments in the future. Since the first edition of this excellent and successful book was published, the aquaculture industry has continued to expand at a massive rate globally and has seen huge advances across its many and diverse facets.

This new edition of Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants covers all major aspects of the culture of fish, shellfish and algae in freshwater and marine environments. Subject areas covered include principles, water quality, environmental impacts of aquaculture, desert aquaculture, reproduction, life cycles and growth, genetics and stock improvement, nutrition and feed production, diseases, vaccination, post-harvest technology, economics and marketing, and future developments of aquaculture. Separate chapters also cover the culture of algae, carps, salmonids, tilapias, channel catfish, marine and brackish fishes, soft-shelled turtles, marine shrimp, mitten crabs and other decapod crustaceans, bivalves, gastropods, and ornamentals. There is greater coverage of aquaculture in China in this new edition, reflecting China's importance in the world scene.

For many, Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants is now the book of choice, as a recommended text for students and as a concise reference for those working or entering into the industry. Providing core scientific and commercially useful information, and written by around 30 internationally-known and respected authors, this expanded and fully updated new edition of Aquaculture is a book that is essential reading for all students and professionals studying and working in aquaculture. Fish farmers, hatchery managers and all those supplying the aquaculture industry, including personnel within equipment and feed manufacturing companies, will find a great deal of commercially useful information within this important and now established book.

Reviews of the First Edition

"This exciting, new and comprehensive book covers all major aspects of the aquaculture of fish, shellfish and algae in freshwater and marine environments including nutrition and feed production."
—International Aquafeed

"Do we really need yet another book about aquaculture? As far as this 502-page work goes, the answer is a resounding 'yes'. This book will definitely find a place in university libraries, in the offices of policy-makers and with economists looking for production and marketing figures. Fish farmers can benefit greatly from the thematic chapters, as well as from those pertaining to the specific plant or animal they are keeping or intending to farm. Also, they may explore new species, using the wealth of information supplied."
—African Journal of Aquatic Science

"Anyone studying the subject or working in any way interested in aquaculture would be well advised to acquire and study this wide-ranging book. One of the real 'bibles' on the aquaculture industry."
—Fishing Boat World and also Ausmarine

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Preface to the Second Edition xiii

Preface to the First Edition xiv

List of Contributors xv

1 Introduction 1
John S. Lucas

1.1 What is aquaculture? 1

1.2 Origins of aquaculture and agriculture 2

1.3 Aquaculture and capture fi sheries production 4

1.4 The ‘Blue Revolution’ 6

1.5 An allegory 11

1.6 Diversity of aquaculture 12

1.7 Stock enhancement 12

1.8 New developments in aquaculture 14

1.9 Conclusions 16

References 17

2 General Principles 18
Peter Appleford, John S. Lucas and Paul C. Southgate

2.1 Introduction 18

2.2 Structures used for aquaculture 18

2.3 Intensity of aquaculture 26

2.4 Static, open, semi-closed and recirculating (closed) systems 32

2.5 Plumbing and pumps 37

2.6 Site selection and development 42

2.7 Hatchery systems 44

2.8 Selecting a new species for culture 46

2.9 Developing a new cultured species 48

References 50

3 Water Quality 52
Claude Boyd

3.1 Introduction 52

3.2 Water quality variables 52

3.3 Effects of water quality on culture species 62

3.4 Water quality management 68

3.5 Effluents 80

3.6 Summary 81

References 82

4 Environmental Aspects 84
Martin Kumar and Simon Cripps

4.1 Public image 84

4.2 Impacts from land-based aquaculture 85

4.3 Impacts of aquaculture within large water bodies 91

4.4 General impacts on the environment 93

4.5 Impact assessment 99

4.6 Integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture 101

4.7 Integrated resource management 103

4.8 Conclusions 104

References 105

5 Desert Aquaculture 107
Inland: Sagiv Kolkovski, Yitzhak Simon and Gideon Hulata Coastal: Sagiv Kolkovski and Nasser Ayaril

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 The Israeli experience 108

5.3 Regional variation in Israel 108

5.4 Aquaculture in geothermal water 108

5.5 Water-limited aquaculture 112

5.6 Indoor aquaculture facilities 116

5.7 Desert coastal aquaculture technology – the Saudi Arabian experience 116

5.8 Brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) production in Western Australia 120

5.9 Species for water-limited aquaculture 121

5.10 Conclusions and future directions 123

References 124

6 Reproduction, Life Cycles and Growth 126
John S. Lucas and Paul C. Southgate

6.1 Introduction 126

6.2 Reproductive physiology 126

6.3 Life cycles 129

6.4 Growth 133

References 137

7 Genetics 138
Rex Dunham

7.1 Introduction 138

7.2 Basic genetics 138

7.3 Domestication and strain evaluation 140

7.4 Selection 141

7.5 Inbreeding and maintenance of genetic quality 145

7.6 Crossbreeding and hybridization 145

7.7 Chromosomal techniques 149

7.8 Molecular and genomic techniques 155

7.9 Future developments 161

References 162

8 Nutrition 164
Sena De Silva, Giovanni Turchini and David Francis

8.1 Introduction 164

8.2 Feed intake, digestion and nutrient absorption 165

8.3 Nutritional requirements 166

8.4 Types of feed 177

8.5 Selecting feed ingredients and formulation 180

8.6 Feed management 181

8.7 Major feed-related issues confronting the aquaculture sector 182

8.8 Conclusions 186

References 186

9 Foods and Feeding 188
Paul C. Southgate

9.1 Introduction 188

9.2 Foods for hatchery culture systems 188

9.3 Microalgae 188

9.4 Zooplankton 194

9.5 Feeding strategy for larval culture 199

9.6 Compound hatchery feeds 200

9.7 Development of artificial diets for fish larvae 201

9.8 Harvesting natural plankton 202

9.9 Pond fertilisation as a food source for aquaculture 202

9.10 Compound feeds 204

9.11 Dispensing aquaculture feeds 210

References 212

10 Diseases 214
Leigh Owens

10.1 Introduction 214

10.2 General principles of diseases in aquaculture 214

10.3 The philosophy of disease control 216

10.4 Generalised disease management techniques 217

10.5 Major diseases 220

10.6 Conclusions 228

References 228

11 Post-harvest Technology and Processing 229
Allan Bremner

11.1 Introduction 229

11.2 Basic characteristics 229

11.3 Safety and health 230

11.4 Nutritional aspects 231

11.5 The balance between safety and nutrition 231

11.6 Aquaculture and fi sheries products 231

11.7 Harvesting 232

11.8 Live transport 232

11.9 Muscle structure: rigor and texture 234

11.10 Stunning and post-mortem processing 236

11.11 Effects of feed on the product 237

11.12 Specialised niche market products 238

11.13 Flavours and taints 238

11.14 Texture 239

11.15 Concepts: quality, freshness, shelf-life and quality index 239

11.16 Microbiology, specifi c spoilage organism (SSO) and other spoilage processes 241

11.17 Freezing and frozen storage 242

11.18 Packaging 246

11.19 Quality control, quality assurance, HACCP and risk assessment 248

11.20 Traceability, identifi cation and origin 249

11.21 Canning 249

11.22 Smoking 250

11.23 Concluding remarks 250

References 251

12 Economics and Marketing 252
Clem Tisdell

12.1 Introduction 252

12.2 Profi tability from a business viewpoint (farm models) 253

12.3 Markets and marketing 256

12.4 Economies of scale and similar factors 259

12.5 Allowing for and coping with business risk and uncertainty 261

12.6 Economic assessment from a social standpoint 264

References 266

13 Seaweed and Microalgae 268
Seaweed: Nicholas A. Paul and C. K. Tseng Microalgae: Michael Borowitzka

13.1 General introduction 268

13.2 Seaweed 268

13.3 Microalgae 284

References 292

14 Carps 294
Sena De Silva

14.1 Introduction 294

14.2 Aspects of biology 295

14.3 Artificial propagation 296

14.4 Nutrient requirements 299

14.5 Culture 300

14.6 Diseases 307

14.7 Genetic improvement 307

14.8 Economic viability 307

14.9 Culture-based fi sheries 308

14.10 Recent developments in carp culture 310

14.11 Conclusions 311

References 311

15 Salmonids 313
John Purser and Nigel Forteath

15.1 Introduction 313

15.2 Biology 315

15.3 Freshwater farming 317

15.4 Marine farming 327

15.5 Feeds 331

15.6 Grading and stocking densities 333

15.7 Maturation, sex reversal and triploidy 334

15.8 Fish health 335

15.9 Harvesting and products 336

References 336

16 Tilapias 338
Victor Suresh and Ram C. Bhujel

16.1 Introduction 338

16.2 Family, species and genetic variation 339

16.3 Ecology and distribution 343

16.4 Sex determination and reproduction 344

16.5 Control of reproduction 345

16.6 Seed production 348

16.7 Nutrition, feeds and feeding 350

16.8 Grow-out systems 354

16.9 Disease management 359

16.10 Harvest, processing and marketing 361

References 362

17 Channel Catfish 365
Craig Tucker

17.1 Introduction 365

17.2 Biology 365

17.3 Commercial culture 366

17.4 Culture facilities 367

17.5 Production practices 368

17.6 Water quality management 373

17.7 Nutrition, feeding and feed formulation 375

17.8 Infectious diseases 376

17.9 Harvesting and processing 380

17.10 The future of channel catfi sh farming 381

References 382

18 Marine Fish 384
John Tucker

18.1 Introduction 384

18.2 Early development 384

18.3 Environmental conditions for culture 387

18.4 Rearing systems 394

18.5 Fish for stocking 397

18.6 Nutrition of larvae 401

18.7 Larval culture types 406

18.8 Juvenile and adult nutrition 409

18.9 Health 413

18.10 Family accounts 417

References 443

19 Preventing Diseases in Fish by Vaccination 445
Andrew Barnes

19.1 Definition 445

19.2 History of fi sh vaccines 445

19.3 Fish immunology in a nutshell 445

19.4 Vaccinating fi sh 449

19.5 Types of vaccine 449

19.6 Routes of delivery 452

19.7 Adjuvants 456

19.8 Vaccination in practice 457

19.9 Research and development track for commercial fish vaccines 458

19.10 Conclusions 459

References 459

20 Soft-shelled Turtles 460
Qingjun Shao

20.1 Introduction 460

20.2 Biological characteristics 462

20.3 Commercial culture 463

20.4 Culture methods and facilities 464

20.5 Culturing the developmental stages 466

20.6 Water quality 469

20.7 Nutrition, feeding and feed formulation 469

20.8 Infectious diseases 471

20.9 Harvesting and processing 472

20.10 The future of soft-shelled turtle farming 474

References 474

21 Marine Shrimp 476
Darryl Jory and Tomás Cabrera

21.1 Introduction 476

21.2 Cultured species 478

21.3 Grow-out systems 481

21.4 Preparation of ponds 484

21.5 Reproduction and maturation 488

21.6 Hatchery design and larval culture 491

21.7 Seedstock quality and stocking 494

21.8 Production management and harvest 497

21.9 Nutrition, formulated diets and feed management 503

21.10 Emerging production technologies and issues 507

21.11 Responsible shrimp farming and the challenge of sustainability 510

References 512

22 Other Decapod Crustaceans 514
Chaoshu Zeng, Yongxu Cheng, John S. Lucas and Paul C. Southgate

22.1 Introduction 514

22.2 Cultured species 516

22.3 The Chinese mitten crab 517

22.4 Freshwater prawns 522

22.5 Freshwater crayfish 527

22.6 Mud crabs 533

22.7 Spiny lobsters 538

References 539

23 Bivalve Molluscs 541
John S. Lucas

23.1 Introduction 541

23.2 Aspects of biology 541

23.3 Cultured bivalves 545

23.4 Phases of bivalve aquaculture 547

23.5 Culture problems 554

23.6 Introductions and other environmental issues 558

23.7 Industry reviews 559

23.8 The future of bivalve aquaculture 564

References 565

24 Gastropod Molluscs 567
Laura Castell

24.1 Introduction 567

24.2 Abalone 569

24.3 Conchs 576

24.4 Trochus 577

24.5 Stock enhancement 579

24.6 Conclusion 580

References 581

25 Ornamentals 583
Daniel Knop (marine) and Jonathan Moorhead (freshwater)

25.1 Introduction 583

25.2 The aquatic ornamental industry 583

25.3 Trade in ornamental fish 583

25.4 Comparing the freshwater and marine ornamental fish trades 585

25.5 Tropical marine ornamentals 585

25.6 Aquaculture of coral reef fi sh 586

25.7 Aquaculture of marine invertebrates 588

25.8 Aquaculture of live rock 592

25.9 Culture versus fi eld collection of marine ornamentals 593

25.10 Tropical freshwater ornamentals 594

25.11 Commonly traded freshwater species 595

25.12 Aquaculture of freshwater ornamental species 597

25.13 Production and marketing goals 603

25.14 The future of the ornamental industry 603

References 603

26 The Next 20 Years 606
Rohana Subasinghe and Nathanael Hishamunda

26.1 Introduction 606

26.2 Recent trends in aquaculture development and major challenges 606

26.3 Aquaculture development slows down, but it continues to grow 609

26.4 Marine resources and aquafeeds 611

26.5 Environmental and social aspects 612

26.6 Diversifi cation and expansion 613

26.7 Communication and networks 614

26.8 Aquaculture insurance 615

26.9 Unexplored opportunities 615

26.10 Conclusions 615

Index 617

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John Lucas is an Adjunct Professor in the Centre for Marine Studies, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Australia. Paul Southgate is Professor of Aquaculture in the School of Marine and Tropical Biology at James Cook University, Australia.
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"This new and considerably improved and updated edition reflects the enormous strides made by the aquaculture sector in the nine years since the first edition. A very good and comprehensive update of a vitally important sector of the wider maritime industry" (AUSMARINE, November 2012)

“Aquaculture—Farming aquatic animals and plants is a book that gives many useful insights into this diverse field, but coverage is uneven and selective; depth has sometimes been sacrificed to maintain breadth.”  (Aquaculture International, 2 April 2011)

 

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