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A Grammar of Old English: Morphology, Volume 2

ISBN: 978-1-4443-5144-6
416 pages
June 2011, Wiley-Blackwell
A Grammar of Old English: Morphology, Volume 2 (1444351443) cover image


A Grammar of Old English, Volume II: Morphology completes Richard M. Hogg's two-volume analysis of the sounds and grammatical forms of the Old English language.
  • Incorporates insights derived from the latest theoretical and technological advances, which post-date most Old English grammars
  • Utilizes the databases of the Toronto Dictionary of Old English project - a digital corpus comprising at least one copy of each text surviving in Old English
  • Features separation of diachronic and synchronic considerations in the sometimes complicated analysis of Old English noun morphology
  • Includes extensive bibliographical coverage of Old English morphology
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Table of Contents



List of abbreviations.

1. Preliminaries.

2. Nouns: Stem Classes.

I Early backgrounds (§§1?9).

II Vocalic stems (§§10?77).

1 a-stem nouns (§§10?33).

(a) Simple a-stems (§§11?18).

(b) ja-stems (§§19?26).

(c) wa-stems (§§27?33).

2 o-stem nouns (§§34?54).

(a) Simple o-stems (§§35?44).

(b) jo-stems (§§45?51).

(c) wo-stems (§§52?4).

3 i-stem nouns (§§55?70).

4 u-stem nouns (§§71?7).

III Consonantal stems (§§78?114).

1 n-stem nouns (§§78?90).

(a) on-stems (§§80?7).

(b) in-stems (§§88?90).

2 r-stem nouns (§§91?4).

3 s-stem nouns (§§95?101).

4 þ-stem nouns (§§102?3).

5 nd-stem nouns (§§104?8).

6 Root-stem nouns (§§109?14).

3. Nouns: Declensions.

I Introduction (§§1?6).

II as-declension (§§7?72).

1 Inflexions (§§8?11).

2 Allomorphic variation (§§12?72).

(a) Restoration of a (§§14?17).

(b) Palatalization (§§18?20).

(c) Back umlaut (§§21?4).

(d) Loss of [h] (§§25?9).

(e) Devoicing (§§30?1).

(f) Nominative singular in -e (§§32?8).

(g) Geminate consonants (§§39?41).

(h) Nominative singular in -u (§42).

(i) Nominative singular in -w (§§43?9).

(j) Apocope (§§50?1).

(k) Double plurals (§§52?5).

(l) Disyllabic nouns (§§56?72).

III a-declension (§§73?104).

1 Inflexions (§§74?80).

2 Allomorphic variation (§§81?104).

(a) Restoration of a (§§83?4).

(b) Palatalization (§85).

(c) Back umlaut (§§86?7).

(d) Loss of [h] and final devoicing (§§88?9).

(e) Geminate consonants (§§90?1).

(f) Stem-final /w/ (§§92?4).

(g) Apocope (§§95?9).

(h) Disyllabic nouns (§§100?4).

IV an-declension (§§105?16).

1 Inflexions (§§106?15).

2 Allomorphic variation (§116).

V Minor declensions (§§117?31).

1 Minor a-plurals (§§117?21).

2 Mutation plurals (§§122?7).

3 Miscellanea (§§128?31).

VI Gender and declension (§§132?43).

1 Gender (§§133?9).

2 Declension (§§140?3).

VII Nominal compounding (§§144?7).

4. Adjectives, Adverbs and Numerals.

I Introduction (§§1?3).

II Indefinite (strong) adjectives (§§4?56).

1 Historical origins (§§4?8).

2 Inflexions (§§9?20).

3 Allomorphic variation (§§21?56).

(a) Restoration of a (§§22?4).

(b) Loss of [x] (§§25?30).

(c) Nominative singular in -e (§§31?5).

(d) Geminate consonants (§§36?7).

(e) Nominative singular masculine in -u (§§38?9).

(f) Nominative singular in -w (§40).

(g) Apocope (§§41?3).

(h) Disyllabic and polysyllabic stems (§§44?52).

(i) Past participles (§§53?6).

III Definite (weak) adjectives (§§57?60).

1 Historical origins and inflexions (§§57?9).

2 Allomorphic variation (§60).

IV Comparison of adjectives (§§61?75).

1 Historical origins (§§61?4).

2 Variation in Old English (§§65?75).

V Adverbs (§§76?9).

VI Numerals (§§80?91).

1 Cardinals (§§80?9).

2 Ordinals (§§90?1).

5. Pronouns.

I Introduction (§§1?2).

II Demonstrative pronouns (§§3?13).

III The anaphoric pronoun (§§14?17).

IV Interrogative pronouns (§§18?21).

V Personal pronouns (§§22?32).

VI Indefinite pronouns (§§33?7).

VII Other pronominal types (§§38?9).

6. Verbs.

I Early background (§§1?5).

II Strong verbs (§§6?76).

1 Inflexions (§§6?30).

(a) Indicative present (§§11?20).

(b) Indicative preterite (§§21?2).

(c) Subjunctive (§§23?5).

(d) Imperative (§26).

(e) Non-finite forms (§§27?30).

2 Stems (§§31?76).

(a) Ablaut patterns (§§33?6).

(b) Variant stem types (§§37?42).

(i) Weak presents (§37).

(ii) Contracted verbs (§§38?41).

(iii) Alternations under Verner?s Law (§42).

(c) Classes of strong verbs (§§43?76).

(i) Class 1 (§§43?6).

(ii) Class 2 (§§47?50).

(iii) Class 3 (§§51?7).

(iv) Class 4 (§§58?60).

(v) Class 5 (§§61?4).

(vi) Class 6 (§§65?8).

(vii) Class 7 (§§69?76).

III Weak verbs (§§77?130).

1 Weak class I (§§78?103).

(a) Inflexions (§§80?8).

(b) Stems (§§89?103).

(i) Stems with original geminate (§92).

(ii) Stems in dental consonant (§§93?5).

(iii) Stems in original final sonorant (§§96?8).

(iv) Contracted verbs with loss of [h] (§99).

(v) Stems in final velar consonant (§§100?3).

2 Weak class II (§§104?20).

(a) Inflexions (§§106?13).

(b) Stems (§§114?20).

3 Weak class III (§§121?30).

(a) Inflexions (§122?6).

(b) Stems (§§127?30).

IV Preterite-present verbs (§§131?44).

1 Inflexion and classes (§§132?40).

(a) Classes 1 and 2 (§§133?4).

(b) Class 3 (§§135?6).

(c) Classes 4 and 5 (§§137?8).

(d) Classes 6 and 7 (§§139?40).

2 Historical development (§§141?4).

V Athematic verbs (§§145?63).

1 The verb beon, wesan (§§146?51).

2 The verb don (§§152?5).

3 The verb gan (§§156?9).

4 The verb willan (§§160?3).


Word index.

Subject Index.

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Author Information

The late Richard M. Hogg was Professor of English Language at the University of Manchester. He was the General Editor of the Cambridge History of the English Language and author, with C. B. McCully, of Metrical Phonology: A Coursebook (1987), and editor, with David Denison, of A History of the English Language (2008).

R. D. Fulk is Chancellor's Professor of English at Indiana University. His books include The Origins of Indo-European Quantitative Ablaut (1986), A History of Old English Meter (1992), and as editor, with Robert E. Bjork and John D. Niles, Klaeber's Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg, 4th Edition (2008).

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“Above all, A Grammar of Old English. Volume 2: Morphology definitely serves its purpose as a work of reference. Its paragraphs are numbered separately and the inclusion of indexes of words as well as of subjects makes the work easy to consult. These features, combined with the undisputed quality of its contents, make this volume the reference work of choice for all Old English scholars and their overly ambitious students.”  (English Studies, 1 October 2013

“Old English has a new authoritative grammar that will take its place as a reliable resource for decades to come and inspire more studies on the language.  It is a striking accomplishment.”  (English Language and Linguistics, 1 January 2013)


This second volume, the worthy culmination of a scholarly lifetime's work, is rich, dense, comprehensive - the best kind of traditional philology informed by modern linguistic theory.
David Denison, University of Manchester

R. D. Fulk has brought Richard Hogg's essential reference to completion with care and thoroughness. Linguists and Old English scholars will be able to gain access to the most important scholarship on morphology via this book.
Peter Baker, University of Virginia

 Along with its companion Phonology volume, Hogg and Fulk's A Grammar of Old English: Morphology is a foundational resource, clearly and meticulously organized, unmatched in the depth and comprehensiveness of its access to the linguistic heritage of early English. It combines a remarkably thorough record of two centuries of intense scholarship with the new perspectives of two truly outstanding Anglo-Saxonists. 
Donka Minkova, University of California, Los Angeles

 Hogg and Fulk have taken a fresh look at a philological record of fearsome complexity, delivering the most explicit and comprehensive survey of Old English inflectional morphophonology to date.Theoreticians will want to check their facts here.
Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero, University of Manchester

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