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Handbook of Food Process Design, 2 Volume Set

ISBN: 978-1-4443-9825-0
1600 pages
February 2012, Wiley-Blackwell
Handbook of Food Process Design, 2 Volume Set (1444398253) cover image
In the 21st Century, processing food is no longer a simple or straightforward matter. Ongoing advances in manufacturing have placed new demands on the design and methodology of food processes. A highly interdisciplinary science, food process design draws upon the principles of chemical and mechanical engineering, microbiology, chemistry, nutrition and economics, and is of central importance to the food industry. Process design is the core of food engineering, and is concerned at its root with taking new concepts in food design and developing them through production and eventual consumption.

Handbook of Food Process Design is a major new 2-volume work aimed at food engineers and the wider food industry. Comprising 46 original chapters written by a host of leading international food scientists, engineers, academics and systems specialists, the book has been developed to be the most comprehensive guide to food process design ever published. 

Starting from first principles, the book provides a complete account of food process designs, including heating and cooling, pasteurization, sterilization, refrigeration, drying, crystallization, extrusion, and separation. Mechanical operations including mixing, agitation, size reduction, extraction and leaching processes are fully documented. Novel process designs such as irradiation, high-pressure processing, ultrasound, ohmic heating and pulsed UV-light are also presented. Food packaging processes are considered, and chapters on food quality, safety and commercial imperatives portray the role process design in the broader context of food production and consumption.

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Preface xix

Acknowledgements xxi

About the Editors xxii

Contributors xxiv

Volume I

1 Food Preservation and Processing Methods 1
Mohammad Shafiur Rahman

Introduction 1

Purpose of Food Preservation 2

Food Preservation Methods 3

References 16

2 Food Process Design: Overview 18
Mohammad Shafiur Rahman and Jasim Ahmed

Introduction 18

Components of Food Process Design 19

Unit Operations and Complete Process 20

Process Flow Diagram 20

Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices 21

Process Severity, Quality and Safety 22

References 23

3 Units and Dimensions 24
E. Ozgul Evranuz

Introduction 24

Systems of Measurement 25

The SI System 27

Definition of Some Derived Physical Quantities 28

Dimensional Consistency 35

Precision and Accuracy 35

Unit Conversions 36

Guidelines for Using SI Units 36

References 38

4 Material and Energy Balances 39
E. Ozgul Evranuz and Meral Kilic-Akyilmaz

Introduction 39

Fundamentals of Material Balances 40

Examples of Material Balance Calculations with and without Reaction 45

Overview of Food Processes 53

Energy Balances 56

Examples of Material and Energy Balances in Food Processing 65

References 71

5 Thermodynamics in Food Process Design 74
Santanu Basu and Pinaki Bhattacharya

Introduction 74

Thermodynamic Fundamentals 75

First Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of Energy 76

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy 82

Application of Thermodynamics in Food Systems 89

References 111

6 Chemical Reaction Kinetics Pertaining to Foods 113
Jasim Ahmed, Kirk Dolan and Dharmendra Mishra

Introduction 113

Basics of Chemical Reaction Kinetics 114

Types of Reactions 115

Fraction Conversion Concept 118

Temperature Dependence of the Rate Constants 119

Types of Reactor 120

Reaction Kinetics Related to Food 122

Statistical Aspects of Kinetic Modeling 144

Conclusions 158

References 159

7 Thermal Food Processing Optimization: Single and Multi-objective Optimization Case Studies 167
Ricardo Simpson and Alik Abakarov

Introduction 167

Types of Optimization Methods 169

Single-objective Optimization of Thermal Food Processing 171

Multi-objective Optimization of Thermal Food Processing 173

Results and Discussion 177

Summary and Conclusion 185

References 185

8 Instrumentation, Sensor Design and Selection 190
Weibiao Zhou and Nantawan Therdthai

Introduction 190

Classification of Sensors 191

Measurements and Sensors in Food Process Control Systems 192

Criteria for Selection of Sensors 197

Recently Developed Measurement Techniques for Food Processes 201

Summary 207

References 207

9 Automation and Process Control 211
Kazi Bayzid Kabir and M.A.A. Shoukat Choudhury

Introduction 211

Food Processing Automation and Control: Current Status 212

Basic Control Theory 217

Current Practice and Future Trends in Food Process Automation 233

Conclusions 236

References 236

10 Use of Various Computational Tools and gPROMS for Modelling Simulation Optimisation and Control of Food Processes 239
I.M. Mujtaba

Introduction 239

Reactor in Food Processing 240

Distillation in Food Processing 242

Extraction in Food Processing 244

Thermal Treatments in Food Processing 245

Model-based Techniques in Food Processing: Simulation, Optimisation and Control 246

Food Properties in Model-based Techniques 250

Computational Software in Food Processing 251

Conclusions 253

References 254

11 Fluid Flow and Pump Selection 262
Jasim Ahmed and Rajib Ul Alam Uzzal

Introduction 262

Nature of Fluids 262

Basic Equations Related to Fluid Flow 269

Measurement of Flowing Fluids 278

Pipes, Fittings and Valves 282

Pumps 290

Fans, Blowers and Compressors 294

Selection of Pump and Performance Evaluation 295

References 296

12 Heating and Cooling System Analysis Based on Complete Process Network 299
Martin Picon-Nunez

Introduction 299

Determination of Process Heating and Cooling Needs 300

Process Heating 310

Process Cooling 315

Heat Exchangers for Heating and Cooling in the Food Industry 329

Summary 332

References 333

13 Pasteurisation Process Design 335
Gary Tucker

Introduction 335

HACCP in Pasteurisation Process Design 336

Processing Options 337

Pasteurisation Design Principles 339

Empirical Data and P-Value Guidelines 341

Equipment for Pasteurisation Processes 343

Summary and Future Trends 360

References 361

Further Reading 361

14 Sterilization Process Design 362
Ricardo Simpson, Helena Nunez and Sergio Almonacid

Introduction 362

Importance of Microorganisms in Sterilization and Pasteurization 363

Heat Transfer in Thermal Processing 370

Quality Evaluation 373

Industrial Equipment 375

Acknowledgments 379

References 379

15 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Cold Storage 381
Mohd. Kaleem Khan

Introduction 381

Refrigeration 382

Air Conditioning Systems 399

Cold Storage 410

Worked Examples 413

References 428

16 Chilling, Freezing and Thawing Process Design 430
Mohammad Shafiur Rahman

Introduction 430

Chilling 430

Freezing 433

Thawing 452

Nomenclature 453

References 455

17 Thermal Evaporator Design 460
Tarif Ali Adib

Introduction 460

Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Food 461

Characteristics of Liquids and Some Evaporator Problems 462

Single-effect Evaporator and Design Calculations for Evaporators 463

Types of Evaporator 465

Heat Transfer Coefficient in Evaporators 470

Energy Economics 475

Hygienic Design and Methods of Cleaning 479

Example 481

Nomenclature 485

References 487

18 Food Processing and Control by Air Jet Impingement 489
Gianpaolo Ruocco and Maria Valeria De Bonis

Introduction 489

Principles of Air Jet Impingement 491

A Conjugate Approach 493

Food Processing and Control of Heating/Drying Treatments 499

Conclusions 505

Nomenclature 506

References 508

19 Hot Air Drying Design: Tray and Tunnel Dryer 510
Jasim Ahmed, U.S. Shivhare and Rajib Ul Alam Uzzal

Introduction 510

Drying of Food 513

Drying Systems 518

Design Considerations in Tray and Tunnel Dryers 519

Design of Tray Dryers 520

Design of Tunnel Dryers 528

Economic Performance of Tray and Tunnel Dryers 536

Energy Management of Tray and Tunnel Dryers 538

Costs of Drying Operations 538

Conclusions 539

Acknowledgment 539

References 539

20 Hot Air Drying Design: Fluidized Bed Drying 542
R.T. Patil and Dattatreya M. Kadam

Introduction 542

Design Features 544

Design of HTST Pneumatic Fluidized Bed Dryer 559

Types of Fluidized Bed Dryers 564

Application of Fluidized Bed Drying 572

Acknowledgment 576

Further Reading 576

Websites 577

21 Heat Pump Design for Food Processing 578
M.N.A. Hawlader and K.A. Jahangeer

Introduction 578

Types of Heat Pump 580

Drying of Agricultural Products and Heat Pump 582

Heat Pumps for Food Processing 584

Modelling, Simulation and Design of Heat Pumps 594

Practice Problems 612

Summary 615

Nomenclature 616

References 618

22 Freeze-drying Process Design 621
Cristina Ratti

Introduction 621

Underlying Principles of Freeze-drying 622

Process Design 625

Modeling the Process 636

Industrial Freeze-drying 636

Costs 639

Unconventional Freeze-drying 640

Conclusions 641

References 642

23 Crystallization Process Design 648
John J. Fitzpatrick

Introduction 648

Crystallization 651

Crystallization Equipment 660

Process Design of Batch Cooling Crystallizers 663

Process Design of Continuous Evaporative and Vacuum Evaporative Crystallizers 672

Monitoring and Control of Crystallization Processes 678

References 680

24 Aseptic Process Design 682
Prabhat Kumar, K.P. Sandeep and Josip Simunovic

Introduction 682

History of Aseptic Processing 683

Important Aspects of Aseptic Process Design 686

Regulations Related to Aseptic Processing 705

Case Study: Aseptic Processing of Sweetpotato Purée 705

Future Trends 707

References 707

25 Extrusion Process Design 710
Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan and Chinnadurai Karunanithy

Introduction 710

Types of Extruder 711

Extruder Components 712

Extruder Variables 720

Feed Ingredient Variables 720

Interactions Between Extruder and Ingredient Variables 722

Product Qualities 727

Supercritical Fluid Extrusion 732

Cost Economics of Extrusion 734

Conclusions 734

References 735

Index to Volumes I and II

Volume II

26 Baking Process Design 743
Emmanuel Purlis

Introduction 743

The Baking Process 745

Baking Design Based on Process Modelling and Simulation 751

Baking Equipment 756

Trends in Baking Technology 759

Conclusions 760

Appendix: Worked Examples 761

Nomenclature 765

References 766

27 Membrane Separation and Design 769
Rohit Ruhal and Bijan Choudhury

Introduction 769

Process Flow-sheet for Membrane Operation 770

Basic Theoretical Principle, Membrane Operation Mode and Membrane Materials 772

Membrane Modules 773

Types of Membrane Process 775

Flux Equations 779

Mode of Operation 781

Design of Membrane 782

Fouling of Membrane in Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration 784

Cleaning and Sanitation 784

Cost 784

Applications 784

Conclusions 786

References 787

28 Food Frying Process Design 789
Ferruh Erdogdu and T. Koray Palazoglu

Introduction 789

Fried Products 793

Quality Attributes of Fried Products 793

Frying Oils 795

Frying Equipment 797

Heat and Mass Transfer during Frying 801

Process Control 805

Conclusions and Future Needs 806

References 807

29 Mechanical Separation Design 811
Timothy J. Bowser

Definition and Purpose 811

Food Products Processed by Mechanical Separation 812

Theoretical Principles of Mechanical Separation 812

Equipment Used for Mechanical Separation 816

Design of Mechanical Separation Processes 824

Process Control 827

Hazard and Safety Issues 828

Cleaning and Sanitation Methods 828

Capital and Operating Costs 829

Future Needs 829

References 830

30 Mixing and Agitation Design 834
Siddhartha Singha and Tapobrata Panda

Introduction 834

Mixing and Agitation: Theoretical Principles 835

Mixing Equipment: Mode of Operation and Comparative Analysis 839

Design Principles of Mixers in the Food Industry 849

Operational Issues of Mixing Equipment 863

Capital and Operating Costs for Different-sized Equipment 866

Summary and Future Needs 867

References 868

31 Extraction Process Design 871
Q. Tuan Pham and Frank P. Lucien

Introduction 871

Liquid–Liquid Extraction 872

Solid–Liquid Extraction (Leaching) 890

Supercritical Fluid Extraction 901

Hygienic Design Aspects 909

Economics 911

Summary and Future Needs 912

Nomenclature 913

References 915

32 Size Reduction Process Design 919
M. Reza Zareifard, Ali Esehaghbeygi and Amin Allah Masoumi

Introduction 919

Texture of Materials 921

Size Classifications 921

Size Reduction Procedures 925

Types of Stresses and Energy Requirements 928

Performance Characteristics 934

Devices 936

Solid Foods Size Reduction 949

Liquid Foods Size Reduction 951

Nanoparticles in the Food Industry 955

References 961

33 Irradiation Process Design 967
Rod Chu

Introduction 967

Applications of Food Irradiation 969

The Food Irradiation Process 970

The Food Irradiation Process Flow 971

Basic Theoretical Principles 972

Design Considerations for Food Irradiators 975

Rules of Thumb 980

Simple Equations 982

Process Control 985

Software for Modeling Food Irradiators 987

Cleaning and Sanitation Methods 990

Capital and Operating Costs for Different Sizes of Equipment 991

Summary and Future Needs 992

Examples of Food Irradiators 993

References 994

34 Design for High-Pressure Processing 998
Tatiana Koutchma

Introduction 998

The Commercial Market for HHP-Processed Products 999

The Potential of HHP Technology as a Unit Operation 999

The HHP Processing Cycle 1002

HHP Pasteurization 1004

HHP Sterilization 1005

Mode of Operation 1005

The Design of High-Pressure Vessels 1008

Commercial HHP Vessels and Process Economics 1010

The Regulatory Status of HHP Processing 1011

Basic Theoretical Principles 1012

Design and Calculations for HHP Preservation Processes 1017

Summary and Future Needs 1024

References 1025

35 Microwave and Radio-Frequency Heating Processes for Food 1031
Francesco Marra

Introduction 1031

Indirect Electroheating: Basic Information about MW and RF Heating 1032

Empirical Data and Properties Needed for Designing MW and RF Processes 1038

Conceptual Design of Electroheating Processes 1040

Equipment 1041

Processes, Products and Potential Products 1044

MW and RF Safety Guidelines 1049

The Economics of MW and RF Processing 1050

References 1052

36 Design of Ohmic Heating Processes 1057
Ilkay Sensoy

Introduction 1057

Applications of Ohmic Heating and Moderate-Electric-Field Processing 1059

The Ohmic Heating Process 1062

Summary and Future Needs 1071

Nomenclature 1071

References 1072

37 Design of Equipment for Pulsed Electric Field Processing 1078
Federico Gomez Galindo and Par Henriksson

Introduction 1078

Principles and Technology 1080

Calculations, Monitoring and Optimization of Treatment Parameters 1093

Capital and Operating Costs 1097

Summary and Future Needs 1098

References 1100

38 Process Design Involving Ultrasound 1107
Jordi Salazar, Antoni Turo, Juan A. Chavez and Miguel J. Garcia-Hernandez

Introduction 1107

Fundamentals of Ultrasound 1108

Low-Intensity Ultrasound 1109

High-Intensity Ultrasound 1134

Conclusions 1155

References 1156

39 Process Design Involving Pulsed UV Light 1166
Ali Demirci and Nene M. Keklik

Introduction 1166

End Products of the Process 1167

Process Components 1170

Basic Theoretical Principles and Mode of Operation 1171

Equipment (Advantages and Limitations) and Parameters 1173

Empirical Data and Rules of Thumb 1174

Estimation of the Design Parameters 1177

Process Control, Operations and Maintenance 1178

Advanced Levels of Process Design for Complicated Systems 1178

Cleaning and Sanitation Techniques 1179

Capital and Operating Costs 1180

Examples of Studies 1180

Worked Examples 1182

Summary and Future Needs 1183

References 1184

40 High-Voltage Food Processing Technology: Theory, Processing Design and Applications 1188
Paul Takhistov

Introduction 1188

Unifi ed Analysis of Electric-Field-Based Food Processing Technologies 1190

Pulsed Electric Fields in Food Processing and Preservation 1202

Treatment Chambers and Equipment 1203

Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation 1207

Events in Electroporation and Microbial Lysis 1208

Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation 1211

PEF Process Calculations and Variables 1213

Mathematical Model of Continuous Operation (Esplugas et al., 2001) 1218

Process Calculations 1219

Physical Properties of Food Products for PEF Processing 1219

Application of PEF Treatment to Food Preservation 1221

PEF Treatment as a Hurdle Technology 1225

References 1229

41 An Overview
Jasim Ahmed and Tanweer Alam

Introduction 1237

Why Do We Need Packaging? 1239

Mass Transfer and Food–Package Interactions 1242

Food Packaging Materials 1245

Sterilization of Packaging Materials 1256

Packaging Design 1258

Packaging for Nonthermal Processes 1260

Biodegradable Packaging 1266

The Future of Packaging 1268

Packaging Safety, Legislation and Regulations 1274

Conclusions 1276

References 1276

42 Mass Transport Phenomena in Food Packaging Design 1284
Marcella Mastromatteo, Amalia Conte and Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile

Introduction 1284

Barrier Properties: Steady State 1288

Barrier Properties: Transient State 1320

References 1332

43 Design of Modifi ed and Controlled Atmospheres 1340
Gurbuz Gunes and Celale Kirkin

Introduction 1340

Gases Used in Modifi ed Atmospheres 1341

Packaging Materials 1342

Design of Modifi ed-Atmosphere Packaging for Foods 1343

Equipment for MAP 1359

Controlled-Atmosphere Storage 1360

Nomenclature 1361

References 1362

44 Packaging for Processed Food and the Environment 1369
Eva Almenar, Muhammad Siddiq and Crispin Merkel

Introduction 1369

Packaging for Processed Food and the Environment 1370

Traditional Packaging Materials and the Environment 1379

Novel Packaging Materials and the Environment 1390

The Future: the Role of Consumers and the Food Industry in the Impact of Packaging on the Environment 1395

Acknowledgment 1397

References 1398

45 Food Quality and Safety Assurance by Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point 1406
Tomas Norton and Brijesh Tiwari

Introduction 1406

Introduction to Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) 1408

The Advantages of Using the HACCP Approach 1410

Prerequisite Programmes 1411

Developing a HACCP Plan 1412

The Seven Principles of HACCP 1413

Implementing the HACCP Plan 1415

Using HACCP during Food Manufacturing 1420

HACCP in a Meat Plant 1422

HACCP in a Cheese Plant 1425

HACCP in a Fish-Smoking Plant 1425

The Infl uence of HACCP on Hygienic Design 1429

Combining HACCP and ISO 22000:2005 1431

References 1433

46 Commercial Imperatives 1436
Gerard La Rooy

Introduction 1436

Fundamental Financial Matters 1437

Financial Impacts of Technical Projects 1442

Analytical Concepts and Techniques 1444

Process Variability 1452

Adopting a ‘Process-Based Approach’ 1455

A Sound Design Process 1460

Applying the Concepts and Techniques 1470

References 1470

Index to Volumes I and II

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Dr Jasim Ahmed is a Research Scientist on the Food and Nutrition Program at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, Kuwait.

Dr Mohammad Shafiur Rahman is a Professor at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

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