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Energy and Environment

Michel André (Editor), Zissis Samaras (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-78630-026-3
556 pages
June 2016, Wiley-ISTE
Energy and Environment (1786300265) cover image

Description

Transport systems are facing an impossible dilemma: satisfy an increasing demand for mobility of people and goods, while decreasing their fossil-energy requirements and preserving the environment. Additionally, transport has an opportunity to evolve in a changing world, with new services, technologies but also new requirements (fast delivery, reliability, improved accessibility).

In this book, recent research works are reported around the triptych: “transport, energy and environment”, which demonstrates that vehicle technologies and fuels can still improve, but it is necessary to prepare their implementation (e.g. electro-mobility), to think of new services, and to involve all actors, particularly enterprises, who will be the drivers of innovation. Mitigation strategies are studied to promote innovative, multimodal and clean transports and services. Research progress is reported on air pollution, vibrations and noise, their mitigation and assessment methodologies.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xxi

Preface xxiii

Bernard JACOB and Jean-Bernard KOVARIK

Introduction xxvii
Michel ANDRÉ and Zissis SAMARAS

Part 1. Electromobility and its Implementation 1

Introduction to Part 1 3
Zissis SAMARAS

Chapter 1. Toward a Europe-Wide Interoperable Electromobility System 5
Gabriele GIUSTINIANI, Luca PERSIA, Heike BARLAG and Norbert VIERHEILIG

1.1. Background 5

1.2. The Green eMotion project partnership and objectives 7

1.3. GeM achievements so far 8

1.4. Next steps 13

1.5. Conclusions . 16

1.6. Bibliography . 17

Chapter 2. Advanced Services for Electromobility: the Integration of the SmartCEM Project Platform for the Reggio Emilia Pilot Site 19
Mauro DELL’AMICO, Guido DI PASQUALE, Leandro GUIDOTTI and Pietro MASCOLO

2.1. Introduction 19

2.2. Reggio Emilia pilot site 21

2.3. Research hypotheses 23

2.4. Technical architecture and data exchange 23

2.5. Experimental design, data and questionnaires 24

2.6. Conclusions 28

2.7. Bibliography 29

Chapter 3. Cognitive Mapping and Multi-criteria Assessment for the Design of an Electric Car Sharing Service 31
Alessandro LUÈ, Alberto COLORNI and Roberto NOCERINO

3.1. Introduction 31

3.2. Decision-aiding methods and causal maps 33

3.3. Assessment of the configuration options 36

3.4. Conclusion 42

3.5. Bibliography 42

Chapter 4. Eco-driving for Clean Vehicles – Optimizing Energy Use for Trams and e-buses 47
Wolfgang BACKHAUS

4.1. Background 47

4.2. Advanced training and education for safe eco-driving of clean vehicles: ACTUATE 48

4.3. Evaluation of training programmes for safe eco-driving of clean vehicles 52

4.4. Conclusions 56

4.5. Bibliography 57

Chapter 5. The Role and Activities of SMEs in EU R&D Transport Programmes: the Case of Electric Vehicles 59
David MORRIS

5.1. Introduction 59

5.2. Innovation in the transport market 60

5.3. Methodology 63

5.4. SME involvement in EU R&D programmes 64

5.5. Strategies employed by SMEs to overcome barriers 69

5.6. Summary 70

5.7. Acknowledgments 70

5.8. Bibliography 71

Part 2. Vehicle and Engine Technologies Development 73

Introduction to Part 2 75
Zissis SAMARAS

Chapter 6. HERCULES-1: The Long-Term (2004–2014) R&D Programme on Large Engine Technologies for Ships 77
Nikolaos KYRTATOS

6.1. Introduction 78

6.2. Achievements of Hercules-A and Hercules-B 79

6.3. Objectives of Hercules-C 81

6.4. Project HERCULES-C results 81

6.5. Conclusions 90

6.6. Acknowledgments 91

6.7. Bibliography 91

Chapter 7. Energy Storage System Studies for Heavy Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the EC HCV Project 93
Mario CONTE, Francesco VELLUCCI, Massimo CERAOLO, Peter DAEMON, Giorgio MANTOVANI, Christian NIKLAS, Sophie TINTIGNAC and Giancarlo TROTTI

7.1. Introduction 93

7.2. The reference vehicles and the selected energy storage systems (ESS) 95

7.3. Dedicated testing procedures 96

7.4. Testing results 100

7.5. Conclusions 105

7.6. Acknowledgments 105

7.7. Bibliography 106

Chapter 8. Achievements and Lessons Learnt in the Zero Regio EU Project 109
Heinrich LIENKAMP and Ashok RASTOGI

8.1. Introduction 109

8.2. Hydrogen infrastructure 110

8.3. Fuel-cell vehicles 115

8.4. Results of demonstration 115

8.5. Unexpected events and lessons learnt 118

8.6. Post-project activities and future plans 120

8.7. Concluding remarks 121

8.8. Bibliography 121

Chapter 9. FEV HiFORS Injector with Continuous Rate Shaping: Influence on Mixture Formation and Combustion Process 123
Paul GRZESCHIK, Hermann-Josef LAUMEN and Udo SCHLEMMER KELLING

9.1. Introduction 123

9.2. HiFORS injector 124

9.3. Optical chamber rate shaping investigations 126

9.4. Single cylinder engine investigations 128

9.5. Conclusion and outlook 134

9.6. Acknowledgments 134

9.7. Bibliography 134

Chapter 10. Development of Predictive Vehicle and Drivetrain Operating Strategies Based Upon Advanced Information and Communication Technologies 137
Stephen JONES, Arno HUSS, Emre KURAL, Alexander MASSONER, Edoardo MORRA, Christa SIMON, Reinhard TATSCHL and Christian VOCK

10.1. Introduction 137

10.2. Energy potential analysis with offline simulation 139

10.3. Analysis of ICT measures for the reduction of CO2 emissions in urban areas 141

10.4. Development and implementation of predictive energy management systems for real-life application 142

10.5. Conclusions and outlook 148

10.6. Acknowledgments 149

10.7. Bibliography 149

Part 3. Energies and Fuels for Transports 151

Introduction to Part 3 153
Zissis SAMARAS

Chapter 11. Measures to Promote the Diffusion of Alternative Fuel Vehicles in EU27 155
Michael KRAIL and Wolfgang SCHADE

11.1. Introduction 155

11.2. The integrated assessment model ASTRA 157

11.3. Diffusion of alternative fuel cars 160

11.4. Policies and scenarios 165

11.5. Conclusions 169

11.6. Acknowledgments 170

11.7. Bibliography 170

Chapter 12. Creating Prospective Value Chains for Renewable Road Transport Energy Sources up to 2050 in Nordic Countries 173
Anu TUOMINEN, Nina WESSBERG, Anna LEINONEN, Annele EEROLA and Simon BOLWIG

12.1. Introduction 173

12.2. Theoretical background 174

12.3. Method 178

12.4. Building future contexts for the prospective value chains 181

12.5. Analysis of value network actors: a biodiesel case study 183

12.6. Discussion and conclusions 185

12.7. Acknowledgments . 186

12.8. Bibliography 186

Chapter 13. The Consequences of Increasing Fuel Prices on Car Travel and Household Budgets 189
Richard GRIMAL

13.1. A break in trend in car travel: increasing financial constraints and the proximity of saturation 189

13.2. A lagged reaction to rising fuel prices 194

13.3. The rise of fuel poverty 200

13.4. Bibliography 206

Chapter 14. The Development of an Innovative On-board CNG Storage System for Methane-Fuelled Cars Conducted Within the FP7 EU Project ‘InGAS’ 209
David Mark STORER, Giorgio MENZATO, Michael KLESCHINSKI, Volker STRUBEL, Bernhard KIENER, Jerzy KALETA, Pawel GASIOR, Wojciech BLAZEJEWSKI, Georg MAIR and Christian GREGOR

14.1. Development of innovative, low-cost Type IV CNG vessels 209

14.2. Development of advanced components for the on-board CNG storage and supply system 212

14.3. Design of CNG storage module 214

14.4. Integration of CNG storage module in vehicle 215

14.5. Performance validation 215

14.6. Considerations regarding production issues 216

14.7. Conclusions 217

14.8. Acknowledgments 219

Chapter 15. Sustainability Assessment of Infrastructure Elements with Integrated Energy Harvesting Technologies 221
Bijan ADL-ZARRABI, Mohammad HOSEINI, York OSTERMEYER and Holger WALLBAUM

15.1. Background 221

15.2. Highway E39 in Norway 223

15.3. Identification of environmental and economic lifecycle challenges 229

15.4. Pareto optimized concepts balancing economic and environmental aspects 230

15.5. Conclusions 231

15.6. Bibliography 232

Part 4. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 235

Introduction to Part 4 237
Michel ANDRÉ

Chapter 16. GHG Mitigation Strategy in the European Transport Sector 241
Wolfgang SCHADE and Michael KRAIL

16.1. Introduction 241

16.2. Analysis of R&D funding and the innovation systems of the transport modes 244

16.3. Scoping of GHG reduction measures and technical reduction potentials 247

16.4. Techno-economic assessment of cost of GHG reduction measures 249

16.5. Stepwise scenario building and model-based assessment of scenarios and their GHG reduction pathways 250

16.6. Synthesis on suitable GHG reduction strategy for transport 253

16.7. Conclusions 255

16.8. Acknowledgments 256

16.9. Bibliography 257

Chapter 17. Why do CO2 Emissions from Heavy Road Freight Transport Increase in Spite of Higher Fuel Prices? 259
Inge VIERTH

17.1. Introduction  259

17.2. Swedish freight transport market 260

17.3. Logistic efficiency of road freight transports 263

17.4. Consumed fuel per vehicle-km 265

17.5. CO2-intensity of fuel used in the road freight sector 269

17.6. Modeling policy impacts 270

17.7. Conclusions 272

17.8. Acknowledgments 273

17.9. Bibliography 273

Chapter 18. A Study on Super Credits and their Impact on Fleet-Average Real-World CO2 Emissions 277
Petros KATSIS, Thomas PAPAGEORGIOU and Leonidas NTZIACHRISTOS

18.1. Introduction 277

18.2. Methodology 279

18.3. Simulation 283

18.4. Results and discussion 286

18.5. Conclusion 289

18.6. Bibliography 290

Chapter 19. A Study on Co-Modality and Eco-Driving Mobility 293
Sven MAERIVOET, Lars AKKERMANS, Kristof CARLIER and Muriel DESAEGER

19.1. Introduction 293

19.2. Analyzing the GPS-based mobility data 294

19.3. Assessing modal shift potential 299

19.4. Vehicle choice, technology and automotive service 305

19.5. Conclusions and recommendations 306

19.6. Bibliography 307

Chapter 20. Harmonizing Carbon Footprint Calculation for Freight Transport Chains 309
Alan LEWIS, Verena EHRLER, Heidi AUVINEN, Hedi MAURER, Igor DAVYDENKO, Antje BURMEISTER, Saskia SEIDEL, Andreas LISCHKE and Jan KIEL

20.1. Introduction 309

20.2. The basis for standardization 313

20.3. Working with real-life supply chains 318

20.4. Outlook: requirements toward a future structure for the harmonized approach 320

20.5. Conclusions 322

20.5. Acknowledgments 322

20.6. Bibliography 322

Chapter 21. Carbon Intensity of French Shippers 325
Christophe RIZET, Cecilia CRUZ, Matthieu DE LAPPARENT and Martine VROMANT

21.1. Introduction: context and objective 325

21.2. Data: the 2004 French shipper survey 326

21.3. Estimating shipper yearly emissions from a typology of shippers 328

21.4. Estimating yearly shipper emissions with a model of carbon intensity per tonne shipped 332

21.5. Comparison of carbon intensity per shipper estimated by the two methods 335

21.6. Carbon intensity, carbon efficiency and the impact of a carbon tax on shipper competitiveness 335

21.7. Conclusion 337

21.8. Acknowledgments 338

21.9. Bibliography 338

Part 5. Air Pollution 339

Introduction to Part 5 341
Michel ANDRÉ

Chapter 22. Impact of FAME Content on the Regeneration Frequency of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) 345
Kenneth D. ROSE, Heather HAMJE, Dimitris KATSAOUNIS, Christos SAMARAS, Savas GEIVANIDIS and Zissis SAMARAS

22.1. Introduction 345

22.2. Experimental setup 347

22.3. Test procedure 348

22.4. Results 350

22.5. Conclusions 354

22.6. Acknowledgments 355

22.7. Bibliography 355

Chapter 23. Exhaust Aftertreatment Potentials of Advanced Coupled NSC-SCR System 357
Thomas WITTKA, Bastian HOLDERBAUM and Thomas KÖRFER

23.1. Introduction 357

23.2. Description of investigated exhaust system and fuel reformer performance 359

23.3. Discussion of results and aftertreatment potentials of investigated exhaust system 363

23.4. Summary 369

23.5. Acknowledgments 370

23.6. Bibliography 370

Chapter 24. Power Controlled Microwave Reactor for the Removal of NOx and SOx from the Exhaust of Marine Diesel Engines 373
Maysam ABBOD, Radu BELECA, David PEIRCE, Lionel GANIPPA, Nadarajah MANIVANNAN and Wamadeva BALACHANDRAN

24.1. Introduction 373

24.2. Non-thermal plasma experimental set-up using diesel car engine 375

24.3. MW power control 378

24.4. Non-thermal plasma experimental set-up using 40 kW marine engine 380

24.5. Practical implementation 383

24.6. Conclusions 383

24.7. Bibliography 384

Chapter 25. Quantification of Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Transport 385
Ilias VOUITSIS, Leonidas NTZIACHRISTOS, Christos SAMARAS and Zissis SAMARAS

25.1. Introduction 385

25.2. Methodology 386

25.3. Database of road non-exhaust EFs 388

25.4. Conclusions 395

25.5. Acknowledgments 396

25.6. Bibliography 396

Chapter 26. COPERT Micro: a Tool to Calculate Vehicle Emissions in Urban Areas 401
Christos SAMARAS, Leonidas NTZIACHRISTOS and Zissis SAMARAS

26.1. Introduction 401

26.2. Methodology 402

26.3. Software application 408

26.4. Results and applications 410

26.5. Conclusions 413

26.6. Bibliography 414

Chapter 27. Traffic and Vehicle Fleet Statistics for the Calculation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Road Transport in France 417
Michel ANDRÉ, Marion CARTERET and Anaïs PASQUIER

27.1. Introduction 417

27.2. Data needed for estimating pollutant emissions from road transports 419

27.3. A typical approach for determining fleet composition 419

27.4. Detailed assumptions and data for France 420

27.5. Comparing different estimations for France 425

27.6. The French vehicle fleet composition: some highlights 427

27.7. Local observations and vehicle fleet variability 429

27.8. Other data required for emission calculation 431

27.9. Discussion and conclusions 432

27.10. Acknowledgments 432

27.11. Bibliography 433

Part 6. Noise and Vibration 435

Introduction to Part 6 437
Michel ANDRÉ

Chapter 28. AQUO European Collaborative Project – Development of Methods and Indicators for the Assessment of Shipping Noise Footprint on Underwater Environment and Impact on Marine Life 439
Christian AUDOLY, Céline ROUSSET, Thomas FOLEGOT, Michel ANDRÉ, Lanfranco BENEDETTI and Eric BAUDIN

28.1. Introduction 439

28.2. Overview of AQUO project 440

28.3. Needs and policies 442

28.4. Noise footprint characterization 445

28.5. Methodology for the derivation of noise mitigation guidelines 450

28.6. Conclusions and ongoing actions 452

28.7. Acknowledgments 453

28.8. Bibliography 453

Chapter 29. Reduction of the Underwater Radiated Noise by Ships: New Shipbuilding Challenge. The Vessels “Ramón Margalef” and “Ángeles Alvariño” as Technological References of How to Build Silent Vessels 455
Publio BELTRÁN PALOMO, Raul SALINAS MULLOR and Alfonso MORENO RODRÍGUEZ

29.1. Introduction 456

29.2. Case study: “Ramón Margalef” and “Ángeles Alvariño”  461

29.3. Conclusions 470

29.4. Acknowledgments 472

29.5. Bibliography 472

Chapter 30. Mitigation of Ground Vibrations from Freight Trains 475
Patrick VANHONACKER and Hamid MASOUMI

30.1. Introduction 475

30.2. Vibrations from freight trains 476

30.3. Decomposing the vibration problem 477

30.4. Numerical modeling 478

30.5. Mitigation measure at the source 479

30.6. Mitigation measure in propagation path 485

30.7. Conclusions 489

30.8. Acknowledgements 489

30.9. Bibliography 489

Chapter 31. ACOUTRAIN: Virtual Certification of Acoustic Performance for Freight and Passenger Trains 491
Nicolas FURIO, Maria STARNBERG, Estelle BONGINI, David THOMPSON, Ulf ORRENIUS and Nathalie CUNY

31.1. Introduction 491

31.2. Acoutrain: a European research project 493

31.3. Conclusion 499

31.4. Acknowledgments 500

31.5. Bibliography 500

Chapter 32. Additional Efficient Warning Sounds for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 501
Etienne PARIZET, Ryan ROBART, Perceval PONDROM, Jean-Christophe CHAMARD, Guillaume BAUDET, David QUINN, Karl JANSSENS and Manfred HAIDER

32.1. Introduction 501

32.2. Detectability 502

32.3. Sound meaning 505

32.4. Unpleasantness 508

32.5. Conclusion 509

32.6. Acknowledgments 510

32.7. Bibliography 510

List of Authors 511

Index 519

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