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Traffic Safety

George Yannis (Editor), Simon Cohen (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-78630-030-0
416 pages
June 2016, Wiley-ISTE
Traffic Safety (1786300303) cover image

Description

Transport systems are facing an impossible dilemma: satisfy an increasing demand for mobility of people and goods, while decreasing their fossil-energy requirements and preserving the environment. Additionally, transport has an opportunity to evolve in a changing world, with new services, technologies but also new requirements (fast delivery, reliability, improved accessibility).

The subject of traffic is organized into two separate but complementary volumes: Volume 3 on Traffic Management and Volume 4 on Traffic Safety.

Traffic Safety, Volume 4 of the Research for Innovative Transports Set, presents a collection of updated papers from the TRA 2014 Conference, highlighting the diversity of research in this field. Theoretical chapters and practical case studies address topics such as road safety management and policies, accident analysis and modeling, vulnerable road users' safety, road infrastructure safety, ITS and railway safety.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xvii

Preface  xix

Introduction xxiii
George YANNIS and Simon COHEN

Part 1. Road Safety Policy  1

Chapter 1. Analysis of Road Safety Management Systems in Europe  3
Nicole MUHLRAD, Gilles VALLET, Ilona BUTLER, Victoria GITELMAN, Etti DOVEH, Emmanuelle DUPONT, Heike MARTENSEN, Pete THOMAS, Rachel TALBOT, Eleonora PAPADIMITRIOU, George YANNIS, Luca PERSIA, Gabriele GIUSTINIANI, Klaus MACHATA and Charlotte BAX

1.1. Introduction  3

1.2. Methodology  4

1.3. Qualitative analyses of road safety management systems in Europe  7

1.4. Quantitative analyses 11

1.5. Conclusion 15

1.6. Key messages and recommendations 15

1.7. Acknowledgments 16

1.8. Bibliography  17

Chapter 2. Conceptualizing Road Safety Management through a Territorialized Complex System: Context and Goals 19
Thierry SAINT-GÉRAND, Mohand MEDJKANE, Abdelkrim BENSAID, Dominique FLEURY, Jean-François PEYTAVIN, Eliane PROPECK-ZIMMERMANN and Maroua BOUZID

2.1. Introduction  19

2.2. Methodological challenge: integration of different road safety concepts into territorial complex system modeling 20

2.3. A practical example: ZIVAG 27

2.4. Conclusion and followings  30

2.5. Bibliography  32

Chapter 3. Development of the European Road Safety Knowledge System  35
George YANNIS, Pete THOMAS, Nicole MUHLRAD, Heike MARTENSEN, Emmanuelle DUPONT, Letty AARTS, Petros EVGENIKOS and Eleonora PAPADIMITRIOU

3.1. Introduction 35

3.2. Data/knowledge collecting and processing 37

3.3. Key road safety analyses and summaries 42

3.4. Conclusion and next steps 48

3.5. Acknowledgments 49

3.6. Bibliography 49

Part 2. Accident Analysis and Modeling 51

Chapter 4. Structural Time Series Modeling of the Number of Fatalities in Poland in Relation to Economic Factors 53
Ruth BERGEL-HAYAT and Joanna ZUKOWSKA

4.1. Introduction  53

4.2. Current state of knowledge  56

4.3. Methodology  57

4.4. The data 58

4.5. Results 65

4.6. Discussion 66

4.7. Conclusion and outlook  66

4.8. Bibliography 67

Chapter 5. Risk of Road Traffic Injuries for Pedestrians, Cyclists, Car Occupants and Powered Two-Wheel Users, based on a Road Trauma Registry and Travel Surveys, Rhône, France 69
Stéphanie BLAIZOT, Francis PAPON, Mohamed MOULOUD HADDAK and Emmanuelle AMOROS

5.1. Introduction  69

5.2. Material and methods 70

5.3. Results and interpretation 73

5.4. Discussion and conclusions 81

5.5. Acknowledgments 83

5.6. Bibliography  83

Chapter 6. Development of Safety Performance Functions for Two-Lane Rural First-Class Main Roads in Hungary 87
Attila BORSOS, John N. IVAN and Gyula OROSZ

6.1. Introduction 87

6.2. Literature review 88

6.3. General overview of first-class main roads 89

6.4. Data collection and segmentation 91

6.5. Modeling 92

6.6. Discussion and conclusions  98

6.7. Acknowledgments 99

6.8. Bibliography 99

Part 3. Vulnerable Road Users’ Safety  101

Chapter 7. Mobility and Safety of Powered Two-Wheelers in OECD Countries 103
Pierre VAN ELSLANDE, Veronique FEYPELL-DE LA BEAUMELLE, James HOLGATE, Kris REDANT, Hélène DE SOLÈRE, Dimitris MARGARITIS, George YANNIS, Eleonora PAPADIMITRIOU, Saskia DE CRAEN, Lars INGE HASLIE, Juan MUGUIRO and Per-Olov GRUMMAS GRANSTRÖM

7.1. Introduction  103

7.2. Mobility and safety figures of PTWs 105

7.3. Contributory factors of PTW crashes 108

7.4. Toward an integrated road safety strategy for PTW 109

7.5. Measures for PTW safety improvement 111

7.6. Key messages and recommendations 113

7.7. Bibliography 115

Chapter 8. Comparison of Car Drivers’ and Motorcyclists’ Drink Driving in 19 Countries: Results from the SARTRE 4 Survey 119
Julien CESTAC, Cécile BARBIER, Gian-Marco SARDI, Richard FREEMAN, Sami KRAÏEM and Jean-Pascal ASSAILLY

8.1. Introduction  119

8.2. Method 120

8.3. Results 122

8.4. Discussion 126

8.5. Acknowledgments 127

8.6. Bibliography  128

Chapter 9. Trajectories of Multiple People in Crowds Using Laser Range Scanner 131
Ladji ADIAVIAKOYE, Patrick PLAINCHAULT, Marc BOURCERIE and Jean-Michel AUBERLET

9.1. Introduction  131

9.2. Approach  132

9.3. Detection 137

9.4. Multiple tracking 139

9.5. Experimental results 140

9.6. Conclusions 142

9.7. Bibliography 142

Chapter 10. Safety of Urban Cycling: A Study on Perceived and Actual Dangers 145
Anita GRASER, Michael ALEKSA, Markus STRAUB, Peter SALEH, Stephan WITTMANN and Gernot LENZ

10.1. State of urban cycling 145

10.2. Perceived safety of urban cycling 148

10.3. The Austrian accident database 151

10.4. Comparison of perceived safety and recorded accidents 153

10.5. Conclusion and outlook 157

10.6. Acknowledgments 158

10.7. Bibliography 158

Part 4. Road Infrastructure Safety 161

Chapter 11. Speed Distribution and Traffic Safety Measures  163
Anna VADEBY and Åsa FORSMAN

11.1. Introduction and aim of the study 163

11.2. Method 165

11.3. Results 167

11.4. Discussion 173

11.5. Acknowledgments 175

11.6. Bibliography 175

Chapter 12. Ex-ante Assessment of a Speed Limit Reducing Operation – A Data-driven Approach 177
Maurice ARON, Régine SEIDOWSKY and Simon COHEN

12.1. Introduction  177

12.2. Method for predicting the injury or fatality accident count 178

12.3. The part of the ALLEGRO motorway network concerned with speed limit reduction 183

12.4. Ex-ante assessment results of the speed decrease in the ALLEGRO motorway network 184

12.5. The threefold validation of the approach  190

12.6. Conclusions 192

12.7. Appendix: relationships between injury accidents and traffic conditions estimated from the Marius network 193

12.8. Bibliography 197

Chapter 13. Development of a Guideline for the Selection of Vehicle Restraint Systems – Identification of the Key Selection Parameters 199
Francesca La TORRE, Ceki ERGINBAS, Robert THOMSON, Giuseppina AMATO, Bine PENGAL, Peter SALEH, Chris BRITTON and Kris REDANT

13.1. Introduction  199

13.2. Objectives of the first work package of the SAVeRS project 201

13.3. Collation and examination of national guidelines and standards 201

13.4. Collation and examination of published literature 204

13.5. Conclusions  211

13.6. Acknowledgments  212

13.7. Follow-up 212

13.8. Bibliography 213

Chapter 14. For the Vision of “Zero Accidents at Intersections”: A Challenge between Road Safety and Capacity 217
Jean Emmanuel BAKABA and Jörg ORTLEPP

14.1. Introduction 217

14.2. Traffic turning left at signal-controlled intersections 218

14.3. Recommendations 230

14.4. Conclusion 231

14.5. Bibliography 232

Chapter 15. Safety Inspection and Management of the Road Network in Operation 233
Salvatore CAFISO, Alessandro DI GRAZIANO, Grazia LA CAVA and Giuseppina PAPPALARDO

15.1. Introduction 233

15.2. Road safety inspection tools in Europe 235

15.3. Design of new software tools for road inspection 239

15.4. Case study 246

15.5. Conclusion 248

15.6. Bibliography 248

Part 5. ITS and Safety 251

Chapter 16. Improving Safety and Mobility of Vulnerable Road Users Through ITS Applications 253
Johan SCHOLLIERS, Daniel BELL, Andrew MORRIS, Alejandra Beatriz GARCÍA MELÉNDEZ and Oscar Martin PEREZ

16.1. Introduction 253

16.2. Methodology 254

16.3. Accident data analysis and identification of critical scenarios 256

16.4. User needs analysis 258

16.5. ITS applications for the critical scenarios and user needs 260

16.6. Results 260

16.7. Conclusions  265

16.8. Acknowledgments 268

16.9. Bibliography 268

Chapter 17. Experimentation with the PRESERVE VSS and the Score@F System 271
Rim MOALLA, Brigitte LONC, Gerard SEGARRA, Marcello LAGUNA, Panagiotis PAPADIMITRATOS, Jonathan PETIT and Houda LABIOD

17.1. Introduction 271

17.2. Test methodology 273

17.3. Performance indicators 274

17.4. Test environment 274

17.5. Test case description 278

17.6. Test results  281

17.7. Conclusion  281

17.8. Acknowledgments 282

17.9. Bibliography 282

Chapter 18. Safety Bus Routing for the Transportation of Pupils to School 283
Eleni CHALKIA, Josep Maria SALANOVA GRAU, Evangelos BEKIARIS, Georgia AYFANDOPOULOU, Chiara FERARINI and Evangelos MITSAKIS

18.1. Introduction 283

18.2. The school bus routing problem 284

18.3. Methodology for solving the SBRP in SAFEWAY2SCHOOL 285

18.4. Application to Thessaloniki 294

18.5. Conclusions  297

18.6. Acknowledgments  298

18.7. Bibliography 298

Chapter 19. Spreading Awareness of Traffic Safety through Web Application 301
Miha AMBROŽ, Jernej KORINŠEK and Ivan PREBIL

19.1. Introduction 301

19.2. Current state of traffic accident data in Slovenia 302

19.3. Identification of conflict points 307

19.4. Application structure 308

19.5. Use of the web application 312

19.6. Conclusion 315

19.7. Acknowledgments 316

19.8. Bibliography 316

Part 6. Railway Safety 317

Chapter 20. Overview of Freight Train Derailments in the EU: Causes, Impacts, Prevention and Mitigation Measures 319
Cristian ULIANOV, François DEFOSSEZ, Gordana VASI�� FRANKLIN and Mark ROBINSON

20.1. Introduction 319

20.2. Research methodology 320

20.3. Results and discussion 322

20.4. Conclusions and recommendations 334

20.5. Acknowledgment 335

20.6. Bibliography 335

Chapter 21. A Risk Assessment Tool for Public Transportation 337
Andrea SOEHNCHEN and Mihai BARCANESCU

21.1. Security – a growing concern for Public Transport operators 337

21.2. The risk assessment procedure 338

21.3. Conclusions  345

21.4. Acknowledgments  346

21.5. Bibliography 346

Chapter 22. The GETAWAY Project – Improving Passenger Evacuation Techniques in Railway Stations (and Other Transport Hubs) 347
Paul BRYANT and Christos GIACHRITSIS

22.1. Introduction  347

22.2. External factors  349

22.3. Objectives of the GETAWAY project 350

22.4. The GETAWAY system concept 351

22.5. The GETAWAY-IADSS development 354

22.6. The Active Dynamic Signage System (ADSS) 355

22.7. Fire Detection System (FDS) development 356

22.8. CCTV Analysis Engine (CAE) 357

22.9. Decision Engine (DE) and Evacuation Simulation Engine (ESE) 357

22.10. The level of IADSS application 358

22.11. Evaluation of the GETAWAY system 359

22.12. Conclusion 363

22.13. Acknowledgments 364

22.14. Bibliography 364

Chapter 23. Interpretive Structural Modeling of Security Systems for Better Security Management in Railways 367
Anoop SRIVASTAVA, Sanjeev SWAMI and Devender BANWET

23.1. Introduction 367

23.2. Complexity of railway systems 368

23.3. Nominal Group Technique (NGT) 369

23.4. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) 370

23.5. Policy implications 376

23.6. Conclusions and avenues for future research 376

23.7. Acknowledgments  377

23.8. Bibliography 377

List of Authors 379

Index 387

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