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Cooperating Embedded Systems and Wireless Sensor Networks

Michel Banatre (Editor), Pedro Jose Marron (Editor), Anibal Ollero (Editor), Adam Wolisz (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-000-4
384 pages
April 2008, Wiley-ISTE
Cooperating Embedded Systems and Wireless Sensor Networks (1848210000) cover image
A number of different system concepts have become apparent in the broader context of embedded systems over the past few years. Whilst there are some differences between these, this book argues that in fact there is much they share in common, particularly the important notions of control, heterogenity, wireless communication, dynamics/ad hoc nature and cost.

The first part of the book covers cooperating object applications and the currently available application scenarios, such as control and automation, healthcare, and security and surveillance. The second part discusses paradigms for algorithms and interactions. The third part covers various types of vertical system functions, including data aggregation, resource management and time synchronization. The fourth part outlines system architecture and programming models, outlining all currently available architectural models and middleware approaches that can be used to abstract the complexity of cooperating object technology.

Finally, the book concludes with a discussion of the trends guiding current research and gives suggestions as to possible future developments and how various shortcomings in the technology can be overcome.

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Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Concept of Cooperating Objects and Sensor Networks 13
Anibal OLLERO, Adam WOLISZ and Michel BANATRE

1.1. Cooperating objects and wireless sensor networks 13

1.2. Embedded WiSeNts 16

1.3. Overview of the book 17

Chapter 2. Applications and Application Scenarios 25
S£¬ebnem BAYDERE, Erdal CAYIRCI, I¨Bsa HACIOG¡¦ LU, Onur ERGIN, Anibal OLLERO, IvanMAZA, Antidio VIGURIA, Phillipe BONNET and Maria LIJDING

2.1. Summary 25

2.2. Introduction 25

2.3. Characteristics and requirements of applications 27

2.4. State of the art projects 30

2.5. Taxonomy of CO applications 51

2.5.1.Control andAutomation (CA) 52

2.5.2. Home and Office (HO) 53

2.5.3. Logistics (L) 54

2.5.4.Transportation (TA) 56

2.5.5. Environmental monitoring for emergency services (EM) 58

2.5.6. Healthcare (H) 60

2.5.7. Security and Surveillance (SS) 63

2.5.8. Tourism (T) 65

2.5.9. Education and Training (ET) 66

2.6. Scenario description structure 68

2.7. Application scenarios 72

2.7.1. Forest fire detection scenario 73

2.7.1.1. Introduction 73

2.7.1.2. Scenario characteristics 74

2.7.1.3. Functional specification 75

2.7.1.4. Object decomposition 76

2.7.1.5. Step-by-step scenario description 77

2.7.1.6. System requirements 78

2.7.2. GoodFood 80

2.7.2.1. Introduction 80

2.7.2.2. Scenario characteristics 81

2.7.2.3. User requirements 81

2.7.2.4. Functional specification 82

2.7.2.5. Object decomposition 82

2.7.2.6. Step-by-step scenario description 83

2.7.2.7. System requirements 85

2.7.3. CORTEX’s Car Control 88

2.7.3.1. Introduction 88

2.7.3.2. Scenario characteristics 89

2.7.3.3. User requirements 89

2.7.3.4. Functional specification 89

2.7.3.5. Object decomposition 89

2.7.3.6. Step-by-step scenario description 90

2.7.3.7. System requirements 91

2.7.4. Hogthrob 92

2.7.4.1. Introduction 92

2.7.4.2. Scenario characteristics 93

2.7.4.3. User requirements 93

2.7.4.4. Functional specification 93

2.7.4.5. Object decomposition 94

2.7.4.6. Step-by-step scenario description 95

2.7.5. Smart surroundings 95

2.7.5.1. Introduction 95

2.7.5.2. Scenario characteristics 96

2.7.5.3. System requirements 100

2.7.6. Sustainable bridges 102

2.7.6.1. Introduction 102

2.7.6.2. Application characteristics 102

2.7.6.3. System requirements 103

2.7.6.4. Functional specification 105

2.7.6.5. Object decomposition 106

2.8. Conclusions 107

2.9. List of abbreviations 109

2.10. Bibliography 110

Chapter 3. Paradigms for Algorithms and Interactions 115
Andrea ZANELLA, Michele ZORZI, Elena FASOLO, Anibal OLLERO, Ivan MAZA, Antidio VIGURIA, Marcelo PIAS, George COULOURIS and Chiara PETRIOLI

3.1. Summary 115

3.2. Introduction 115

3.2.1. Aim of the chapter 115

3.2.2. Organization of the chapter 116

3.3. Definition of concepts 118

3.4. Wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring 119

3.4.1. Application scenarios 120

3.4.2. Peculiarities of WSNs 121

3.4.3. Medium Access Control 123

3.4.3.1. Random Access Protocols 124

3.4.3.2. Deterministic access protocols 131

3.4.4. Routing and forwarding algorithms 133

3.4.4.1. Location-based routing 137

3.4.4.2. Data-centric routing 141

3.4.4.3. Hierarchical-based routing 145

3.4.5. Sensor data aggregation 149

3.4.6. Clustering and backbone formation 151

3.4.6.1. Clustering for ad hoc networks 151

3.4.6.2. Clustering for WSNs 153

3.4.7. Localization in ad hoc and WSNs 155

3.4.7.1. Range-free localization 155

3.4.7.2. Range-based localization 157

3.5. Wireless sensor networks with mobile nodes 160

3.5.1. Introduction 160

3.5.2. Types of mobile nodes and networks 162

3.5.3. Static sensor networks with mobile nodes 162

3.5.3.1. Nodes with uncontrolled and non-predictable motion 163

3.5.3.2. Nodes with controlled or predictable motion 164

3.5.4. WSNs with autonomous mobile nodes 166

3.5.5. Algorithms 168

3.5.5.1. Localization algorithms 168

3.5.5.2.Coverage algorithms 169

3.5.5.3. MACalgorithms 169

3.5.5.4. Routing algorithms 170

3.5.5.5. Mobile nodes planning algorithms 171

3.5.5.6. Mobile nodes reactive algorithms 173

3.5.5.7. Network repairing algorithm 174

3.5.6. Critical issues and future research 175

3.6. Autonomous robotic teams for surveillance and monitoring 176

3.6.1. Introduction 176

3.6.2. A taxonomy of multi-robot systems 177

3.6.3. Paradigms for coordination and cooperation 181

3.6.3.1. Paradigms in the architecture of multi-robot systems 182

3.6.3.2. Centralized/decentralized architecture 183

3.6.3.3. Communication between components 184

3.6.3.4. Path planning for multiple robot systems 185

3.6.4. Robots using WSNs 186

3.6.5. Algorithms for navigation of autonomous robots using WSNs 187

3.6.5.1. Potential field guiding algorithm 187

3.6.5.2. Path computation and following algorithm 188

3.6.5.3. Probabilistic navigation 190

3.6.6. Critical issues and future trends 192

3.7. Inter-vehicle communication networks 193

3.7.1. Road-vehicle communication (RVC) 193

3.7.2. Inter-vehicle communication (IVC) 194

3.7.3. Communication scenario 194

3.7.4. IVN applications 195

3.7.4.1. Safety 195

3.7.4.2. Traffic management 196

3.7.4.3. Environmental protection 197

3.7.4.4. Traffic and vehicle information for billing 197

3.7.4.5. Data communication using delay-tolerant networks 198

3.7.4.6. Added-value services 198

3.7.4.7. Important aspects 199

3.7.5. MAC layer 200

3.7.5.1. Wireless LAN 201

3.7.5.2. Cellular networks 201

3.7.5.3. Approaches 203

3.7.6. Routing 207

3.7.6.1. Traditional MANET protocols 207

3.7.6.2. Location-based routing 208

3.7.7. Multicast networking in the context of wireless inter-vehicle and road networks 210

3.7.7.1. Multicast addressing and delivery 210

3.7.7.2. Multicast routing 211

3.7.7.3. Geocasting 211

3.7.7.4. Flooding-based geocasting 212

3.7.7.5. Routing without flooding 213

3.7.7.6. Summary of simulation results 214

3.7.8. Time synchronization 214

3.7.9. Simulations: more real-life models 215

3.8. Classification of the concepts 215

3.8.1. Classification of the thematic areas 216

3.8.1.1. Wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring (WSNEMs) 216

3.8.1.2. Wireless sensor networks with mobile node (WSNMNs) 217

3.8.1.3. Autonomous Robotics Team (ART) 219

3.8.1.4. Inter-Vehicular Networks (IVN) 220

3.8.2. Classification of the algorithms 222

3.8.2.1. MAC algorithms . 222

3.8.2.2. Routing algorithms 225

3.8.2.3. Localization algorithms 228

3.8.2.4. Data processing 231

3.8.2.5. Navigation algorithms 233

3.8.2.6. Timetable of the literature on the subject 235

3.9. Critical issues and research gaps 235

3.9.1. Gaps with general scope 235

3.9.2. Gaps in WSNs 237

3.9.3. Gaps in wireless sensor networks with mobile nodes 238

3.9.4. Gaps in autonomous robotics team 238

3.9.5. Gaps in inter-vehicular networks 239

3.10. Conclusions 239

3.11. Bibliography 241

Chapter 4. Vertical System Functions 259
Marcelo PIAS, George COULOURIS, Pedro Jose MARRON, Daniel MINDER, Nirvana MERATNIA, Maria LIJDING, Paul HAVINGA, £¬Sebnem BAYDERE, Erdal CAYIRCI and Chiara PETRIOLI

4.1. Summary 259

4.2. Introduction 259

4.3. Vertical System Function (VF) 261

4.4. Types of vertical system functions 263

4.4.1. Context and location management 266

4.4.1.1. Context management 267

4.4.1.2. Context-aware applications 268

4.4.1.3. Location management 269

4.4.2. Data consistency 270

4.4.2.1. Consistency handling mechanisms (operation of WSN) 270

4.4.2.2. Consistency handling mechanisms (data processing) 271

4.4.2.3. Consistency handling mechanisms (application programming) 275

4.4.3. Communication functionality 275

4.4.4. Security, privacy and trust 277

4.4.4.1. Resource protection 277

4.4.4.2. Encryption 278

4.4.4.3. Secrecy 279

4.4.4.4. Privacy 280

4.4.4.5. Data integrity 280

4.4.4.6. Trust 280

4.4.4.7. Protocols 281

4.4.5. Distributed storage and data search 281

4.4.5.1. Data dissemination 283

4.4.5.2. Query processing and resolution 287

4.4.6. Data aggregation 298

4.4.6.1. Types of aggregation 300

4.4.6.2. Selection of the best aggregation points 301

4.4.7. Resource management 304

4.4.7.1. Design challenges 304

4.4.7.2. Adaptation in resource management 305

4.4.7.3. Adaptation and enabling technologies 306

4.4.7.4. Adaptation frameworks 309

4.4.7.5. Adaptation categorization and its parameters 315

4.4.7.6. Future direction of adaptivity in WSN 317

4.4.8. Time synchronization 317

4.5. Summary and conclusions 321

4.5.1. Context and location management 321

4.5.2. Data consistency and adaptivity in WSNs 324

4.5.3. Communication functionality 326

4.5.4. Security, privacy and trust 327

4.5.5. Distributed storage and data search 329

4.5.6. Resource management 332

4.5.7. Time synchronization 334

4.6. Bibliography 336

Chapter 5. System Architectures and Programming Models 347
S. SANTINI, K. ROEMER, P. COUDERC, P. MARRON, D. MINDER, T. VOIGT and A. VITALETTI

5.1. Summary 347

5.2. Introduction 348

5.3. Programming models 349

5.3.1. Requirements 349

5.3.2. State of the art 353

5.3.2.1. Database view 354

5.3.2.2. Event detection 356

5.3.2.3. Virtual markets 358

5.3.2.4. Virtual machines 359

5.3.2.5. Mobile code and mobile agents 360

5.3.2.6. Role-based abstractions 362

5.3.2.7. Group-based approach 364

5.3.2.8. Spatial programming 365

5.3.2.9. Shared information space 365

5.3.2.10. Other approaches 366

5.3.3. Summary and evaluation 366

5.4. System architectures 369

5.4.1. System architectures: node internals 369

5.4.1.1. Data-centric and service-centric approach 370

5.4.1.2. Operating systems 370

5.4.1.3. Virtual machines 379

5.4.1.4. Data management middleware 383

5.4.1.5. Adaptive system software 387

5.4.1.6. Summary and evaluation 389

5.4.2. System architecture: interaction of nodes 390

5.4.2.1. Introduction 390

5.4.2.2. Communication models 391

5.4.2.3. Network dynamics 392

5.4.3. Architectures and functionalities summary 394

5.5. Conclusions and future work 396

5.5.1. Programming models 396

5.5.2. Node internals 397

5.6. Bibliography 399

Chapter 6. Cooperating Objects Roadmap and Conclusions 405
Pedro Jose MARRON, Daniel MINDER and the Embedded WiSeNts Consortium

6.1. Intended audience 406

6.2. Methodology and structure 406

6.3. Executive summary 407

6.4.Research gaps and timeline 408

6.5. Potential roadblocks 409

6.6. Recommendations 410

6.7. Summary and final conclusions 411

List of Authors 413

Index 417

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Michel Banâtre, INRIA, Rennes, France

Pedro Jose Marron, Universität Stuttgart, Germany

Anibal Ollero, AICIA, Sevilla, Spain

Adam Wolisz, TUB, Berlin, Germany

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