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Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

Houda Labiod (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-003-5
352 pages
January 2008, Wiley-ISTE
Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (1848210035) cover image
Two new fields have recently appeared: mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks. The emergence of these very promising systems is mainly due to great technological progress in the field of wireless communication protocols; these will make it possible to offer a broad range of new applications in both civilian and militarian domains. The inherent characteristics of these systems imply new challenges. This book deals with several relevant fields related to the evolution of these spontaneous and self-organized networks. The authors tackle critical problems such as the design of unicast/multicast routing protocols, the support of the quality of service, the security mechanisms for routing and data transmission, the service discovery, the techniques of clustering/self-organization, the mobility of code and the fault-tolerance techniques. The discussion adopts an analysis-oriented approach which aims to cover the current cutting-edge aspects of these fields and to highlight some potential future development, making it essential reading for anyone wishing to gain a better understanding of these exciting new areas.
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Chapter 1. Introduction 1
Houda LABIOD

Chapter 2. Ad Hoc Networks: Principles and Routing 7
Stéphane UBÉDA

2.1. Introduction 7

2.2. Hertzian connection 12

2.2.1. Physical layer impact 12

2.2.2. Shared access to medium 15

2.2.3. Flooding 19

2.3. Routing 21

2.3.1. Dynamic source routing (DSR) 23

2.3.2. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) 25

2.3.3. Optimized link state routing (OLSR) 26

2.3.4. Topology based on reverse-path forwarding (TBRPF) 28

2.3.5. Zone-based hierarchical link state routing protocol (ZRP) 29

2.3.6. Location-aided routing (LAR) 30

2.4. Conclusion 32

2.5. Bibliography 33

Chapter 3. Quality of Service Support in MANETs 35
Pascale MINET

3.1. Introduction to QoS 35

3.1.1. Different QoS requirements 36

3.1.2. Chapter structure 36

3.2. Mobile ad hoc networks and QoS objectives 37

3.2.1. Characteristics of mobile ad hoc networks and QoS 37

3.2.2. Routing in mobile ad hoc networks 40

3.2.3. Realistic QoS objectives 48

3.3. QoS architecture and relative QoS state of the art 49

3.3.1. Different QoS components 49

3.3.2. QoS models 51

3.3.3. QoS signaling 53

3.3.4. QoS routing 56

3.4. An example of QoS support: QoS OLSR 57

3.4.1. Description of QoS OLSR 58

3.4.2. Performance evaluation 59

3.5. Conclusion 61

3.5.1. Summary 61

3.5.2. Perspectives 62

3.6. Bibliography 62

Chapter 4. Multicast Ad Hoc Routing 65
Houda LABIOD

4.1. Introduction 65

4.2. Multicast routing in MANETs: a brief state of the art 66

4.2.1. Classification 66

4.2.2. Summary 68

4.3. SRMP 69

4.3.1. Description 69

4.3.2. Operation 72

4.3.3. Maintenance procedures 73

4.4. Properties 75

4.5. Simulation results and analysis 76

4.6. Conclusion 77

4.7. Bibliography 77

Chapter 5. Self-organization of Ad Hoc Networks: Concepts and Impacts 81
Fabrice THEOLEYRE and Fabrice VALOIS

5.1. Introduction 81

5.2. Self-organization: definition and objectives 82

5.2.1. Definition 82

5.2.2. Principles and objectives 82

5.2.3. Local or distributed decisions? 84

5.3. Some key points for self-organization 85

5.3.1. Emergence of global behavior from local rules 85

5.3.2. Local interactions and node coordination 86

5.3.3. Minimizing network state information 86

5.3.4. Dynamic environment adaptation 87

5.4. Self-organization: a state of the art 87

5.4.1. Classification 87

5.4.2. Virtual backbone 88

5.4.3. Cauterization techniques 94

5.5. Case study and proposition of a solution 94

5.5.1. Motivations 94

5.5.2. Construction of virtual topology 95

5.5.3. Maintenance of virtual topology 98

5.5.4. Virtual topology properties 101

5.6. Contribution of self-organization 101

5.6.1. Energy saving 102

5.6.2. Influence of self-organization on routing 103

5.7. Conclusion 106

5.8. Bibliography 107

Chapter 6. Approaches to Ubiquitous Computing 111
Mohamed BAKHOUYA and Jaafar GABER

6.1. Introduction 111

6.2. Structured service discovery systems 114

6.2.1. Systems based on an indexing mechanism 114

6.2.2. Systems based on distributed hash 119

6.3. Unstructured service discovery systems 120

6.3.1. Flooding-based mechanism 120

6.3.2. Random walk-based mechanism 123

6.4. Comparison between structured and unstructured systems 124

6.5. Self-organizing and self-adaptive approach 125

6.5.1. Server community construction approach 126

6.5.2. Request resolution 129

6.6. Simulation results 135

6.7. Conclusion 137

6.8. Bibliography 137

Chapter 7. Service Discovery Protocols for MANETs 143
Abdellatif OBAID and Azzedine KHIR

7.1. Introduction 143

7.2. Service discovery protocols 146

7.2.1. Service discovery protocols in wired networks 146

7.2.2. Service discovery in ad hoc networks150

7.2.3. Service discovery with routing 152

7.3. Conclusion 162

7.4. Bibliography 162

Chapter 8. Distributed Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks and Applications 165
Romain MELLIER and Jean-Frédéric MYOUPO

8.1. Introduction 165

8.2. State of the art 166

8.2.1. Clustering in two hop clusters 167

8.2.2. Clustering at more than two hops 181

8.3. Clustering in networks where mobile devices may have the same weight 183

8.4. Applications 184

8.4.1. Initialization problem in k hop networks 185

8.4.2. Mutual exclusion in k hop networks 185

8.5. Conclusion 190

8.6. Bibliography 191

Chapter 9. Security for Ad Hoc Routing and Forwarding 195
Sylvie LANIEPCE

9.1. Introduction 195

9.2. Reminders on routing protocols in ad hoc networks196

9.2.1. Reactive protocols 196

9.2.2. Proactive protocol 198

9.3. Routing threat model in ad hoc networks 199

9.3.1. Ad hoc network characterization for security 199

9.3.2. Classification of attack objectives 200

9.3.3. Basic attacks and security counter measures 200

9.4. Routing security 202

9.4.1. SRP: secure routing for mobile ad hoc networks 202

9.4.2. Secure ad hoc on-demand distance vector (SAODV) routing 204

9.4.3. Ariadne 205

9.4.4. ARAN: authenticated routing protocol for ad hoc networks 209

9.4.5. Secure dynamic source routing (SDSR) 210

9.4.6. EndairA 212

9.5. IP datagram forwarding security 213

9.5.1. Monitoring-based techniques 213

9.5.2. Technique based on packet acknowledgement 219

9.5.3. Cooperative incentive techniques based on virtual money 220

9.6. Conclusion 220

9.7. Acknowledgements 221

9.8. Bibliography 221

Chapter 10. Fault-Tolerant Distributed Algorithms for Scalable Systems 225
Sébastien TIXEUIL

10.1. Introduction 225

10.2. Distributed algorithms and wireless communications 226

10.3. Fault-tolerant distributed algorithms 228

10.3.1. Fault taxonomy in distributed systems 228

10.3.2. Fault-tolerant algorithm categories 230

10.4. The limits and problems caused by a large-scale system 232

10.4.1. Hypotheses about the system 232

10.4.2. Hypotheses on the applications 235

10.5. Solutions for large-scale self-stabilization 238

10.5.1. Restricting the nature of the faults 238

10.5.2. Limiting the geographic extent of faults 242

10.5.3. Classification 246

10.5.4. Limiting the classes of problems to solve 247

10.6. Conclusion 251

10.7. Bibliography 251

Chapter 11. Code Mobility in Sensor Networks 257
Fabrício A. SILVA, Linnyer B. RUIZ, José M. NOGUEIRA, Thais R. BRAGA and Antonio A.F. LOUREIRO

11.1. Introduction 257

11.2. Concepts linked to code mobility 258

11.2.1. Process and object migration 259

11.2.2. Code mobility 259

11.2.3. Wireless sensor networks and code mobility 260

11.3. Project paradigms of code mobility systems 261

11.3.1. Client/server 261

11.3.2. Remote evaluation 262

11.3.3. Code on demand 262

11.3.4. Mobile agent 263

11.4. Mobile agents 263

11.4.1. Mobile agent components 265

11.4.2. Mobile agent system models 266

11.5. Modeling mobile agent systems for wireless sensor networks 268

11.5.1. Agent model 268

11.5.2. Life cycle model 268

11.5.3. Computing model 269

11.5.4. Security model 269

11.5.5. Communication model 270

11.5.6. Navigation model 270

11.6. State of the art 271

11.6.1. Remote and single hop reprogramming 271

11.6.2. Multihop reprogramming 272

11.6.3. Virtual machine reprogramming 274

11.6.4. Mobile target location application 275

11.7. Case study: mobile agents in WSN management 276

11.7.1. Objectives 276

11.7.2. Models 277

11.7.3. Evaluation 278

11.8. Conclusion 282

11.9. Bibliography 282

Chapter 12. Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications: Applications and Perspectives 285
Rabah MERAIHI, Sidi-Mohammed SENOUCI, Djamal-Eddine MEDDOUR and Moez JERBI

12.1. Introduction 285

12.2. Properties and applications 287

12.2.1. Properties of VANETs 287

12.2.2. VANET applications 289

12.3. State of the art and study of the existing situation 292

12.3.1. Projects and consortiums 292

12.3.2. Study of the existing situation 294

12.4. Conclusion 303

12.5. Bibliography 304

List of Authors 309

Index 313

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Houda Labiod received a PhD degree in Computer Science from the
University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France in 1998. From 1999 to 2000, she worked as an assistant researcher at Eurecom Institute in Sophia-Antipolis (France) in the Mobile Communications Unit. Since September 2000, she is an associate professor at ENST (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications) in the INFRES (Computer Science and Network) department. She is an author of a book titled "De Wi-Fi à Bluetooth" (Hermès Editions, 2004). Her main research interests include optimization of mobile and wireless networking and mobile ad hoc networks (unicast routing, multicast routing, security, QoS routing).
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"This book will provide a very useful reference on the architectural aspects of ad-hoc sensor networks to both students and practioners working in the area." (Computing Reviews, November 19, 2008)

"What makes this book worth reading from cover to cover is the successful juxtaposition of state-of-the-art descriptions and concrete research projects related to wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. While many aspects of the study of wireless ad hoc sensor networks are still in flux, the book succeeds in presenting 'a global, realistic, and critical vision of the evolution of spontaneous and autonomous network.' Thus, the book is long on solid scientific research and short on speculation." (Computing Reviews, October 23, 2008)

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