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The Radio Spectrum

ISBN: 978-1-84821-006-6
320 pages
January 2008, Wiley-ISTE
The Radio Spectrum (184821006X) cover image
Radio frequencies have become a basic resource for the development of the information society. In fact, radio waves are a mandatory vehicle in order to carry the message to customers and a truly worldwide communication needs their properties. Given the market demands for more and more frequencies, means have to be found to share this limited resource most effectively and to continuously improve its efficiency. Radio spectrum management is thus a major objective for our modern world.

This book describes the current tools for spectrum management with their fundamental technical and legal basis. It outlines the global evolution of radio services in their different application domains and introduces the actors who contribute to the collective management of the spectrum. It also discusses the main questions these actors have to deal with and answer in order to design for the future.

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Acknowledgement and Credits xi

Introduction xiii

Part 1. The Basis of Spectrum Management 1

Chapter 1. A Bit of History, Physics and Mathematics 3

1.1. Waves 4

1.2. Propagation 10

1.3. Directivity 11

1.4. Link evaluation 18

Chapter 2. Telecommunications 25

2.1. Modulation and bandwidth 26

2.2. Bandwidth and noise 30

2.3. C/N (or C/I) and S/Nm 34

2.4. Multiplex, multiple access 39

2.5. A balance between carrier power, noise and interferences 45

Chapter 3. Geography and Radio Communications: Radio Network Engineering 51

3.1. Regions and countries 52

3.2. Radio implementation in the field 55

3.3. Propagation on the Earth 59

3.4. Space, orbits, satellite systems 62

3.5. Terrestrial network coverage 66

3.6. Coverage strategies 69

3.7. Radio site protection 70

Chapter 4. Spectrum Sharing, Bases and Actors 71

4.1. Radio frequencies: common goods 71

4.2. Regulatory services for spectrum sharing by the ITU (allocation frequency tables) 74

4.3. The role of states in sharing the spectrum 76

4.4. How to plan new applications and compatible services 79

4.5. Regulation, harmonization, planning 80

4.6. Is the spectrum resource scarce? 82

4.7. Spectrum sharing: a summary 83

Chapter 5. Some Regulated Services 85

5.1. The fixed service 86

5.2. Mobile services 89

5.3. Broadcasting 95

5.4. Satellite services 100

5.5. Geo and non-geo systems 104

56. Some other regulatory services 106

Chapter 6. Recent Evolutions of Radio Services 111

6.1. A family snapshot 113

6.2. Enthusiastic telecommunications 115

6.3. Hesitant broadcasters 120

6.4. The promises of radiolocation 125

6.5. Limits of the spectrum planning efficiency 126

Chapter 7. Regulatory Instruments for Spectrum Sharing 129

7.1. Frequency allocation tables 131

7.2. Plans 137

7.3. Coordination 141

7.4. Technical limits 145

Chapter 8. Frequency Assignment: A Contract 147

8.1. Contracting parties 148

8.2. Common bands and assignments 149

8.3. Exclusive bands: preferential sub-bands 151

8.4. Assignment procedures 153

8.5. External requirements: site constraints 155

8.6. Satellite systems 158

Chapter 9. Spectrum Monitoring 161

9.1. Spectrum monitoring technical tools 162

9.1.1. HF band monitoring 162

9.1.2. Metric and decimetric band monitoring 163

9.1.3. Microwave monitoring 167

9.1.4. Satellite monitoring 168

9.1.5. Mobile monitoring stations 169

9.1.6. Airborne monitoring means 170

9.2. Radio station inspections: major events 170

9.3. Claim for interference: legal prosecutions 172

9.4. “Radio landscape” description 173

9.5. Terminals 175

Part 2. Managers and their Practices 177

Chapter 10. New Technical Perspectives and Impact on Spectrum Management 179

10.1. Spread spectrum technologies 181

10.2. OFDM and MIMO 181

10.3. Ultra wideband 183

10.4. Dynamic spectrum access technologies 186

10.5. Software-defined radio 187

10.6. Cognitive radio 189

10.7. Intersystem control 192

10.8. Mesh networks 193

Chapter 11. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 199

11.1. The ITU today 199

11.2. Radio Regulations 203

11.2.1. The vocabulary of radio communications 204

11.2.2. Table of frequency allocations 205

11.2.3. Procedures 205

11.2.4. Interferences 207

11.2.5. Administrative provisions and provisions relating to services and networks 208

11.2.6. Safety: maritime and aeronautical services 209

11.3. Assemblies and conferences 211

11.4. Themes of recent interest 212

11.5. Short-term prospects for action 215

Chapter 12. Regional Bodies 217

12.1. The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) 218

12.2. European Union 221

12.3. Other regional structures 224

Chapter 13. National Spectrum Regulators and Institutional Debates 227

13.1. The USA 228

13.2. The UK 230

13.3. France 233

13.4. Germany 236

13.5. Italy 236

13.6. Asia-Pacific 236

13.7. Is there an ideal structure for spectrum regulation? 239

13.8. Is a European regulator for the spectrum needed? 242

Chapter 14. Major Current European and International Issues to Improve Spectrum Efficiency 245

14.1. Convergence 245

14.1.1. Mobile – broadcasting convergence 246

14.1.2. Fixed – mobile convergence 247

14.1.3. Wireless access platforms for electronic communication services (WAPECS) 248

14.1.4. Spectrum management issues imposed by convergence of radio services 250

14.2. Collective use 250

14.2.1. Types of spectrum collective uses 251

14.2.2. Protection against interference 253

14.2.3. Collective spectrum in Europe: the present situation 254

14.2.4. Challenges 256

14.2.5. Impact of an extension of unlicensed bands on spectrum planning 257

14.2.6. An example of introducing collective use in radar frequency bands 258

Chapter 15. Regimes of Radio Spectrum Management: A Synthetic View 261

15.1. Definitions: four dimensions of spectrum management 263

15.1.1. Frequency allocation to services: spectrum harmonization or neutrality? 264

15.1.2. Technology: standardization or neutrality? 264

15.1.3. Usage rights definition 265

15.1.4. Assignment modes of spectrum usage rights 266

15.2. Choosing a spectrum management regime 267

15.3. Deciding on spectrum management regimes: a four-step process 269

15.4. Navigating the nine spectrum management regimes: migrations and transitions 277

Chapter 16. The Future of the Spectrum: A Road Towards More Flexibility 279

Glossary 287

References 297

Index 299

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Jean-Marc Chaduc was born in 1943. He is a graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique and of the Ecole nationale supérieure des telecommunications. His first professional activity was as the technical director of the early french satellite telecommunication center at Pleumeur-Bodou where he contributed to operate the first generations of satellites. Later he moved towards a more administrative career in different ministries where he has been in charge of promoting new radio networks. Then, at the Ministère de l'Industrie, he worked at the new legislation for telecommunications. In 1996, he was in charge of designing the new french Agence nationale des frequences and was appointed its general director from 1997.

Gérard Pogorel is Professor of Economics and Management at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, (ENST, Paris).Beforehand, he has acted as an evaluator, auditor, and reviewer for the NSF, Harvard Business Review, Research Policy and EU research programs in Information and Communications Technologies. He also has been a frequent member of government-level committees shaping spectrum policies in Europe and internationally, a member of monitoring committees (composed of independent experts) of the EU Framework Research Programme, Chair of the Monitoring Panel, Chair of the Monitoring Committee of the European Union Information Society and Technologies Research Programme.

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