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Modeling and Verification of Real-time Systems

Nicolas Navet (Editor), Stephan Merz (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-013-4
448 pages
April 2008, Wiley-ISTE
Modeling and Verification of Real-time Systems (1848210132) cover image
This title is devoted to presenting some of the most important concepts and techniques for describing real-time systems and analyzing their behavior in order to enable the designer to achieve guarantees of temporal correctness.

Topics addressed include mathematical models of real-time systems and associated formal verification techniques such as model checking, probabilistic modeling and verification, programming and description languages, and validation approaches based on testing. With contributions from authors who are experts in their respective fields, this will provide the reader with the state of the art in formal verification of real-time systems and an overview of available software tools.

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Preface 15
Stephan MERZ and Nicolas NAVET

Chapter 1. Time Petri Nets – Analysis Methods and Verification with TINA 19
Bernard BERTHOMIEU, Florent PERES and Francois VERNADAT

1.1. Introduction 19

1.2. Time Petri nets 20

1.2.1. Definition 20

1.2.2. States and the state reachability relation 20

1.2.3. Illustration 22

1.2.4. Some general theorems 23

1.3. State class graphs preserving markings and LTL properties 24

1.3.1. State classes 24

1.3.2. Illustration 25

1.3.3. Checking the boundedness property on-the-fly 26

1.3.4. Variations 27

1.4. State class graphs preserving states and LTL properties 28

1.4.1. Clock domain 28

1.4.2. Construction of the SSCG 29

1.4.3. Variants 30

1.5. State class graphs preserving states and branching properties 32

1.6. Computing firing schedules 33

1.6.1. Schedule systems 33

1.6.2. Delays (relative dates) versus dates (absolute) 34

1.6.3. Illustration 35

1.7. An implementation: the Tina environment 35

1.8. The verification of SE−LTL formulae in Tina 37

1.8.1. The temporal logic SE−LTL 37

1.8.2. Preservation of LTL properties by tina constructions 39

1.8.3. selt: the SE−LTL checker of Tina 39

1.9. Some examples of use of selt 42

1.9.1. John and Fred 42

1.9.2. The alternating bit protocol 44

1.10. Conclusion 47

1.11. Bibliography 48

Chapter 2. Validation of Reactive Systems by Means of Verification and Conformance Testing 51
Camille CONSTANT, Thierry JERON, Herve MARCHAND and Vlad RUSU

2.1. Introduction 51

2.2. The IOSTS model 54

2.2.1. Syntax of IOSTS 54

2.2.2. Semantics of IOSTS 56

2.3. Basic operations on IOSTS 57

2.3.1. Parallel product 57

2.3.2. Suspension 58

2.3.3. Deterministic IOSTS and determinization 60

2.4. Verification and conformance testing with IOSTS 60

2.4.1. Verification 60

2.4.2. Conformance testing 64

2.5. Test generation 64

2.6. Test selection 68

2.7. Conclusion and related work 70

2.8. Bibliography 73

Chapter 3. An Introduction to Model Checking 77
Stephan MERZ

3.1. Introduction 77

3.2. Example: control of an elevator 78

3.3. Transition systems and invariant checking 79

3.3.1. Transition systems and their runs 81

3.3.2. Verification of invariants 82

3.4. Temporal logic 84

3.4.1. Linear-time temporal logic 84

3.4.2. Branching-time temporal logic 87

3.4.3. ω-automata 89

3.4.4. Automata and PTL 92

3.5. Model checking algorithms 94

3.5.1. Local PTL model checking 95

3.5.2. Global CTL model checking 97

3.5.3. Symbolic model checking algorithms 99

3.6. Some research topics 103

3.7. Bibliography 105

Chapter 4. Model Checking Timed Automata 111
Patricia BOUYER and Francois LAROUSSINIE

4.1. Introduction 111

4.2. Timed automata 112

4.2.1. Some notations 112

4.2.2. Timed automata, syntax and semantics 113

4.2.3. Parallel composition 114

4.3. Decision procedure for checking reachability 115

4.4. Other verification problems 118

4.4.1. Timed languages 118

4.4.2. Branching-time timed logics 118

4.4.3. Linear-time timed logics 120

4.4.4. Timed modal logics 121

4.4.5. Testing automata 121

4.4.6. Behavioral equivalences 121

4.5. Some extensions of timed automata 121

4.5.1. Diagonal clock constraints 122

4.5.2. Additive clock constraints 123

4.5.3. Internal actions 124

4.5.4. Updates of clocks 125

4.5.5. Linear hybrid automata 126

4.6. Subclasses of timed automata 127

4.6.1. Event-recording automata 127

4.6.2. One-clock timed automata 128

4.6.3. Discrete-time models 129

4.7. Algorithms for timed verification 130

4.7.1. A symbolic representation for timed automata: the zones 130

4.7.2. Backward analysis in timed automata 131

4.7.3. Forward analysis of timed automata 132

4.7.4. A data structure for timed systems: DBMs 133

4.8. The model-checking tool Uppaal 134

4.9. Bibliography 135

Chapter 5. Specification and Analysis of Asynchronous Systems using CADP 141
Radu MATEESCU

5.1. Introduction 141

5.2. The CADP toolbox 142

5.2.1. The LOTOS language 143

5.2.2. Labeled transition systems 143

5.2.3. Some verification tools 144

5.3. Specification of a drilling unit 147

5.3.1. Architecture 150

5.3.2. Physical devices and local controllers 152

5.3.3. Main controller – sequential version 155

5.3.4. Main controller – parallel version 157

5.3.5. Environment 158

5.4. Analysis of the functioning of the drilling unit 159

5.4.1. Equivalence checking 159

5.4.2. Model checking 161

5.5. Conclusion and future work 164

5.6. Bibliography 166

Chapter 6. Synchronous Program Verification with Lustre/Lesar 171
Pascal RAYMOND

6.1. Synchronous approach 171

6.1.1. Reactive systems 171

6.1.2. The synchronous approach 172

6.1.3. Synchronous languages 172

6.2. The Lustre language 173

6.2.1. Principles 173

6.2.2. Example: the beacon counter 174

6.3. Program verification 174

6.3.1. Notion of temporal property 175

6.3.2. Safety and liveness 175

6.3.3. Beacon counter properties 175

6.3.4. State machine 175

6.3.5. Explicit automata 176

6.3.6. Principles of model checking 176

6.3.7. Example of abstraction 177

6.3.8. Conservative abstraction and safety 178

6.4. Expressing properties 178

6.4.1. Model checking: general scheme 178

6.4.2. Model checking synchronous program 179

6.4.3. Observers 180

6.4.4. Examples 180

6.4.5. Hypothesis 180

6.4.6. Model checking of synchronous programs 181

6.5. Algorithms 182

6.5.1. Boolean automaton 182

6.5.2. Explicit automaton 182

6.5.3. The “pre ” and “post ” functions 183

6.5.4. Outstanding states 183

6.5.5. Principles of the exploration 184

6.6. Enumerative algorithm 184

6.7. Symbolic methods and binary decision diagrams 185

6.7.1. Notations 185

6.7.2. Handling predicates 186

6.7.3. Representation of the predicates 186

6.7.4. Typical interface of aBDD library 188

6.7.5. Implementation of BDDs 188

6.7.6. Operations on BDDs 189

6.7.7. Notes on complexity 191

6.7.8. Typed decision diagrams 192

6.7.9. Care set and generalized cofactor 194

6.8. Forward symbolic exploration 195

6.8.1. General scheme 196

6.8.2. Detailed implementation 196

6.8.3. Symbolic image computing 198

6.8.4. Optimized image computing 198

6.9. Backward symbolic exploration 201

6.9.1. General scheme 201

6.9.2. Reverse image computing 202

6.9.3. Comparing forward and backward methods 203

6.10. Conclusion and related works 203

6.11. Demonstrations 204

6.12. Bibliography 205

Chapter 7. Synchronous Functional Programming with Lucid Synchrone 207
Paul CASPI, Gregoire HAMON and Marc POUZET

7.1. Introduction 207

7.1.1. Programming reactive systems 207

7.1.2. Lucid Synchrone 211

7.2. Lucid Synchrone 213

7.2.1. An ML dataflow language 213

7.2.2. Stream functions 214

7.2.3. Multi-sampled systems 216

7.2.4. Static values 222

7.2.5. Higher-order features 222

7.2.6. Datatypes and pattern matching 224

7.2.7. A programming construct to share the memory 225

7.2.8. Signals and signal patterns 227

7.2.9. State machines and mixed designs 229

7.2.10. Parametrized state machines 233

7.2.11. Combining state machines and signals 234

7.2.12. Recursion and non-real-time features 236

7.2.13. Two classical examples 236

7.3. Discussion 240

7.3.1. Functional reactive programming and circuit description languages 240

7.3.2. Lucid Synchrone as a prototyping language 241

7.4. Conclusion 242

7.5. Acknowledgment 243

7.6. Bibliography 243

Chapter 8. Verification of Real-Time Probabilistic Systems 249
Marta KWIATKOWSKA, Gethin NORMAN, David PARKER and Jeremy SPROSTON

8.1. Introduction 249

8.2. Probabilistic timed automata 250

8.2.1. Preliminaries 250

8.2.2. Syntax of probabilistic timed automata 252

8.2.3. Modeling with probabilistic timed automata 254

8.2.4. Semantics of probabilistic timed automata 254

8.2.5. Probabilistic reachability and invariance 255

8.3. Model checking for probabilistic timed automata 258

8.3.1. The region graph 258

8.3.2. Forward symbolic approach 261

8.3.3. Backward symbolic approach 266

8.3.4. Digital clocks 273

8.4. Case study: the IEEE FireWire root contention protocol 277

8.4.1. Overview 277

8.4.2. Probabilistic timed automata model 278

8.4.3. Model checking statistics .281

8.4.4. Performance analysis 282

8.5. Conclusion 285

8.6. Bibliography 285

Chapter 9. Verification of Probabilistic Systems Methods and Tools 289
Serge HADDAD and Patrice MOREAUX

9.1. Introduction 289

9.2. Performance evaluation of Markovian models 290

9.2.1. A stochastic model of discrete event systems 290

9.2.2. Discrete-time Markov chains 292

9.2.3. Continuous-time Markov chains 294

9.3. High level stochastic models 297

9.3.1. Stochastic Petri nets with general distributions 297

9.3.2. GLSPN with exponential distributions . 299

9.3.3. Performance indices of SPN 300

9.3.4. Overview of models and methods in performance evaluation 300

9.3.5. The Great SPN tool 301

9.4. Probabilistic verification of Markov chains 303

9.4.1. Limits of standard performance indices 303

9.4.2. A temporal logic for Markov chains 303

9.4.3. Verification algorithms 305

9.4.4. Overview of probabilistic verification of Markov chains 306

9.4.5. The ETMCC tool 307

9.5. Markov decision processes 308

9.5.1. Presentation of Markov decision processes 308

9.5.2. A temporal logic for Markov decision processes 309

9.5.3. Verification algorithms 309

9.5.4. Overview of verification of Markov decision processes 313

9.5.5. The PRISM tool 314

9.6. Bibliography 315

Chapter 10. Modeling and Verification of Real-Time Systems using the IF Toolset 319
Marius BOZGA, Susanne GRAF, Laurent MOUNIER and Iulian OBER

10.1. Introduction 320

10.2. Architecture 322

10.3. The IF notation 324

10.3.1. Functional features 324

10.3.2. Non-functional features 326

10.3.3. Expressing properties with observers 328

10.4. The IF tools 329

10.4.1. Core components 329

10.4.2. Static analysis 332

10.4.3. Validation 333

10.4.4. Translating UML to IF 334

10.5. An overview on uses of IF in case studies 336

10.6. Case study: the Ariane 5 flight program 337

10.6.1. Overview of the Ariane 5 flight program 337

10.6.2. Verification of functional properties 339

10.6.3. Verification of non-functional properties 343

10.6.4. Modular verification and abstraction 344

10.7. Conclusion 345

10.8. Bibliography 347

Chapter 11. Architecture Description Languages: An Introduction to the SAE AADL 353
Anne-Marie DEPLANCHE and Sebastien FAUCOU

11.1. Introduction 353

11.2. Main characteristics of the architecture description languages 356

11.3. ADLs and real-time systems 357

11.3.1. Requirement analysis 357

11.3.2. Architectural views 359

11.4. Outline of related works 360

11.5. The AADL language 362

11.5.1. An overview of the AADL 363

11.6. Case study 365

11.6.1. Requirements 365

11.6.2. Architecture design and analysis with AADL 366

11.6.3. Designing for reuse: package and refinement 377

11.7. Conclusion 380

11.8. Bibliography 381

List of Authors 385

Index 389

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Stephan Merz is a researcher at INRIA Lorraine (Nancy, France). He is interested in formal methods for the analysis and construction of reliable software systems, in particular temporal logic, refinement, and the automated and interactive verification of distributed systems.

Nicolas Navet is a researcher in Real-Time Systems at INRIA Lorraine (Nancy, France). His research interests include real-time scheduling, probalistic modeling and computational intelligence, with applications to automotive embedded systems and financial engineering.

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