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Digital Libraries

Fabrice Papy (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-042-4
544 pages
July 2008, Wiley-ISTE
Digital Libraries (1848210426) cover image
Of vital interest to all librarians and information specialists, this book presents all aspects of the effects of digitization of today's and tomorrow's libraries. From social to technical issues, Digital Libraries includes chapters on the growth of the role of librarian, the reader experience, cataloging, search engines, OPAC, law, ergonomic studies, and the future of libraries.
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Preface xv
Fabrice PAPY and Gil-François EUVRARD

Chapter 1. The Growth of the Role of Librarians and Information Officers in Digital Libraries 1
Christian LUPOVICI

1.1. Changes in the world of documentation 1

1.1.1. Transformations in society 3

1.2. Transformations in the economic situation of libraries 3

1.2.1. Too many hits?! The new trend of vague search entries 3

1.2.2. The integration of heterogenous services 4

1.2.3. The librarian’s challenge to reach customer satisfaction 5

1.3. Changing a paradigm: changing the object “information” 5

1.3.1. Breaking with the traditional way of managing physical objects 5

1.3.2. New objects in documentation 6

1.4. Changing a paradigm: information in a network of documentation 7

1.4.1. Information is linked to a network of information 7

1.4.2. Processing a high flux of dematerialized information 8

1.5. A new way of organizing libraries: the impact of the digital revolution 8

1.5.1. Impact on the functioning of a library 8

1.5.2. Impact on the concept of information 9

1.5.3. Impact on distribution 9

1.5.4. Impact on intellectual property 9

1.6. New trends 10

1.6.1. Introducing administrative aspects of documentation into the document 10

1.6.2. The librarian’s role in the editing process 10

1.7. The digital library 11

1.7.1. The virtual library 11

1.7.2. A “real” library 11

1.8. Introducing different layers to the core sector of the profession 12

1.8.1. Support for online library users 12

1.8.2. Providing training for users 12

1.8.3. Managing materialized objects as well as digital documents 12

1.9. Broadening skills and responsibilities for all of the library’s staff 13

1.9.1. Managing old and new techniques simultaneously 13

1.9.2. Increasing qualifications and responsibilities 13

Chapter 2. The Tao of the Digital Library: A Library Without a Librarian? 15
Joachim SCHÖPFEL and Jacques CREUSOT

2.1. The technological supremacy of the concept of the “digital library” 16

2.2. TSI’s influence on the market 18

2.3. The virtualization of a document’s function 19

2.4. Development and changes to job profiles in the CNRS directory 1982–2002 20

2.5. Supporting professions – the INIST approach 22

2.6. A new job profile is emerging – the e-serials librarian 24

2.7. Developments in training requirements – the UKSG workshops 1990–2004 26

2.8. “He who takes the longest strides…” 28

2.9. Bibliography 30

Chapter 3. The Reader Faced with a Digital Library: the Experience of the Pasteur Institute 33
Emmanuelle JANNÈS-OBER

3.1. Introduction. 33

3.2. Which services should be aimed at what kind of audience? 34

3.2.1. Content 35

3.2.2. Services 36

3.2.3. Programs 38

3.3. How are services used? 39

3.3.1. Empirical knowledge and how users carry out their research 39

3.3.2. Some statistics 41

3.4. Current problems 42

3.4.1. How to organize the extremely high number of hits 42

3.4.2. Can the costs be controlled? 44

3.4.3. How to create a new dialog with the user. 44

3.4.4. Appendix: Biolib’s search interface 46

Chapter 4. University Students’ Information Strategies: From Institutional Expectations to Real Uses 47
Marie DESPRÉS-LONNET

4.1. Introduction 47

4.2. Methodological issues 48

4.3. Relating use and environment 50

4.4. Resource legitimacy 53

4.5. The evolution of the figure of the “third party” 56

4.6. Conclusion 57

4.7. Bibliography 58

Chapter 5. The Digital Spirit: Digital Libraries and Democracy 61
Olivier FRESSARD

5.1. Books and libraries function as an objective spirit 61

5.2. The symbolic value of books stored within a library 63

5.3. How can the project of a digital library be realized? 64

5.4. Digital libraries are actually very rare! 66

5.5. Technical supports and new ways of reading 66

5.6. Two different types of logic within reading processes 69

5.7. The sociological significance of different reading processes 71

5.8. Does the “library of democracy” exist? 71

5.9. Access and usage 73

5.10. Tocqueville – a sociological model of democracy 74

5.11. The library’s devices and the disposition of the public 76

5.12. Libraries are facing a cultural crisis 78

5.13. Conclusion 80

5.14. Bibliography 80

Chapter 6. Accessing Library Catalogs in the Age of Digital Libraries and Search Engines: Gaps, Disruptions and Transformation? 83
Dominique LAHARY

6.1. Prehistory 83

6.1.1. Secondary information 84

6.1.2. What about access to documents? 86

6.2. The age of OPAC 86

6.2.1. A high level of uniformity 87

6.2.2. How to access documents according to their content 87

6.2.3. Too many or no hits at all – a choice must be made 88

6.2.4. Some progress is being made 88

6.2.5. Disadvantages and features the system lacks 89

6.2.6. Are catalogs actually used by the public? 89

6.3. The secret order 91

6.3.1. Libraries must now imitate search engines which so successfully imitated them in the first place 91

6.3.2. The secret order’s manifesto 92

6.3.3. Plea for resurgence 92

6.3.4. Realizing the project 94

6.3.5. Remote access 99

6.3.6. New solutions combined with traditional ones 100

6.4. Conclusion 101

6.5. Bibliography 102

Chapter 7. Stakes and Prospects of Heuristic Visualization for OPAC Use 103
Sophie CHAUVIN

7.1. Complexity of information systems 103

7.1.1. Complexity of inter-related information systems for documentation 105

7.1.2. Complexity, training and catalogs 106

7.2. Sense and visualization 107

7.2.1. The multidimensional space of a library 107

7.2.2. Accessing the stock of documents via metadata 108

7.2.3. Improved online catalogs – they lead to an increase in unintended applications 110

7.3. Visualization and the trail of knowledge 110

7.3.1. Principles of a heuristic visualization 110

7.3.2. Reticular systems and hypertextual trails 112

7.4. Interface, intermediaries and amplification of coherence 115

7.5. Usage and perspectives 116

7.6. Bibliography 118

Chapter 8. 3D Interaction for Digital Libraries 123
Pierre CUBAUD

8.1. Introduction 123

8.2. The page as a surface 124

8.2.1. Structured light 126

8.2.2. Photogrammetry 127

8.3. The book and reading interfaces 130

8.4. Research collections and research interfaces 134

8.5. Conclusion 139

8.6. Bibliography 140

Chapter 9. Using Facets to Classify and Access Digital Resources: Proposal and Example 145
Michèle HUDON

9.1. Introduction 145

9.2. Examining existing classification structures 147

9.2.1. Sample 147

9.2.2. Methodology 147

9.2.3. Results and discussion 148

9.3. A faceted structure to organize and access resources in a virtual library in education 151

9.3.1. Creating a special virtual collection of web resources in education 152

9.3.2. Classification and indexing 154

9.3.3. Development of a faceted classification structure 155

9.3.4. Using the faceted structure 159

9.3.5. Next steps 165

9.4. General conclusion 165

9.5. Bibliography 166

Chapter 10. Digital Libraries: the Publication of Legal Documents Online within the Info-mediation Service 169
Fabien GIRARD DE BARROS

10.1. Availability, instantaneity and simplicity of information: the minimum requirements for legal publications on the Internet 170

10.1.1. Accessing legal information: application of the classic unities of tragedy within the company 171

10.1.2. Judicial security and the instantaneity of the response 172

10.1.3. The simplicity of access: ergonomics – providing a helping hand with the abundance of information available on the Internet 173

10.2. The relevance of information: from the documentalist’s know-how to the documentalist/info mediator 175

10.2.1. The emergence of relevant search engines 175

10.2.2. Contextualization: first steps towards the relevance of information 176

10.2.3. Providing training for the jurists: reinforcing the link between the jurist and the documentalist 176

10.3. The sharing of judicial information: when the judicial publisher becomes the computer technician 177

10.3.1. Intranet: the symbiosis of official information and personal doctrines 178

10.3.2. Channels: communication within the communication service 178

10.3.3. The alert and the newsletter: managing updates 179

10.4. Conclusion 180

10.5. Bibliography 180

Chapter 11. What Scholarly and Pedagogic Material is Available Online for the Virtual User Within French Universities? 181
Ghislaine CHARTRON and Marc MINON

11.1. The availability of scholarly and pedagogic material online within French universities: an assessment 181

11.1.1. An economic scale that distinguishes three models 182

11.1.2. Published material as public property 182

11.1.3. Published material within a market economy 184

11.1.4. Published material and a common economy 186

11.2. Published digital resources and distance teaching devices: an even weaker synergy 188

11.3. The evolution of activities for libraries: future priorities? 190

11.3.1. Evolution of activities 190

11.3.2. Two future priorities for libraries 191

11.4. Bibliography 193

Chapter 12. The Revel@Nice Project: the Creation and Prospects of a Pioneering Site of Online Periodicals and Journals 195
Michel ROLAND

12.1. The project 195

12.1.1. Purpose of the site 195

12.1.2. History 197

12.2. Creation 199

12.2.1. Timetable for the creation of the site 201

12.2.2. Human resources and project management 201

12.2.3. Precisions and modifications 203

12.2.4. Launch of the site and performance analysis 204

12.3. Sustainability and longevity 205

12.3.1. Publishing sustainability 205

12.3.2. Technological sustainability 205

12.3.3. Institutional sustainability 206

12.4. Post-scriptum: today 207

12.4.1. Visibility 207

12.4.2. Versioning 207

12.4.3. Current prospects and perspectives 208

Chapter 13. Evaluating the Use and Users of Digital Journal Libraries 211
David NICHOLAS and Paul HUNTINGTON

13.1. Introduction 211

13.2. Digital libraries evaluated 213

13.3. Use of digital journals 214

13.3.1. Downloads (ranked lists) 215

13.3.2. Article use 215

13.4. Site penetration and “bouncing” 216

13.4.1. Infrequent visitors 217

13.5. Reflections on what constitutes a digital library “user” 217

13.6. Reflecting on the meaning of “use” 218

13.7. Widespread popular interest in digital journals 218

13.7.1. The rising popularity of the e-journal 218

13.7.2. Abstracts make a come back 219

13.8. Search approaches 219

13.9. User diversity 220

13.10. Conclusions 221

13.11. Bibliography 222

Chapter 14. Digital Collections in Libraries: Development and Continuity 223
Hélène ROUSSEL

14.1. Introduction 223

14.2. Adaptations and alterations in the document chain 224

14.2.1. Identification and selection 224

14.2.2. Purchases, subscriptions and licenses 225

14.2.3. Intellectual and physical processing of documents 227

14.3. Searching and catalogs 229

14.4. … searching and mega-catalogs 230

14.5. Organization of collections 231

14.6. Physical processing, accessibility and placement online 231

14.7. Preservation 232

14.8. … and dissemination 232

14.9. Conclusion 233

14.10. Bibliography 234

Chapter 15. Ergonomic Standards and the Uses of Digital Libraries 235
Nicole LOMPRÉ

15.1. Introduction 235

15.2. The evolution of ergonomic standards for user interfaces 236

15.2.1. Guidelines for leading computer manufacturers 240

15.2.2. Recommendations by WCAG for accessibility and standard number ISO/DIS 9241-171 242

15.2.3. Publishers and ergonomic recommendations 245

15.3. Study of the uses of digital libraries 247

15.3.1. Libraries and privileged relationships with the users 247

15.3.2. Getting lost in digital library interfaces 248

15.3.3. The use of online catalogs and databases 249

15.3.4. Listening to the researchers’ needs 252

15.3.5. User-centered focus groups within libraries 253

15.3.6. Suggested recommendations for improving digital libraries 253

15.3.7. Recommendations based on user opinions 256

15.4. Conclusion 256

15.5. Bibliography 258

Chapter 16. A Document Information System Within the University: From the Project’s Conception to its Installation 263
Corinne LEBLOND

16.1. Where do the university and its document information system originate from? Conditions for use of such a system 265

16.1.1. Local context: the document information system within the university 265

16.1.2. The emergence and development of a regional online university 266

16.2. The implementation of the document information system 267

16.2.1. The success of the modernization of documentation 267

16.2.2. The objectives and main priorities of the document information system 268

16.3. From the idea to reality: the spread of the document management system and the documentation portal 273

16.3.1. Technical configuration of the document information system 273

16.3.2. The document information system as a development tool 273

16.3.3. The services on offer when carrying out research from the documentation portal 275

16.4. The evolution and spread of the document information system 277

16.4.1. Strengthening co-operation with other university services in order to gather and broadcast all of the digital information that has been produced 277

16.4.2. The integration of the document information system within the global information system of the University of Artois 278

16.4.3. Providing the content for the document information system 279

16.5. Uses and feedback 280

16.6. Prospects and development 283

Chapter 17. Do Libraries Have a Future in Academia? 285
Robert CAMPBELL

17.1. The control of knowledge 285

17.2. The changing use of journals 286

17.3. Will the serials librarian survive? 287

17.4. Towards a more efficient system 288

17.5. The challenge ahead 290

17.6. The versioning problem 291

17.7. Developing countries 291

17.8. Open computation 291

17.9. Conclusion 292

17.10. Bibliography 293

List of Authors 295

Index 299

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Fabrice Papy is Associate Professor of Information Science at the University of Paris 8 in France. He founded the 'Digital Document and Uses" Lab where multidisciplinary researchers study the impact of digital technologies on social behavior.
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