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Spatial Management of Risks

Gerard Brugnot (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-046-2
256 pages
November 2008, Wiley-ISTE
Spatial Management of Risks (1848210469) cover image
Spatial analysis is an increasingly important tool for detecting and preventing numerous risk and crisis phenomena such as floods in a geographical area. This book concentrates on examples of prevention but also gives crisis control advice and practical case studies.  Some chapters address urban applications in which vulnerabilities are concentrated in area; others address more rural areas with more scattered phenomena.
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Introduction xiii

Chapter 1. From Prevention to Risk Management: Use of GIS 1
Sophie SAUVAGNARGUES-LESAGE

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. GIS and public security 3

1.3. Examples of applications for public security 8

1.3.1. SIGASC application 8

1.3.2. Application 12

1.3.3. SIG CODIS application 15

1.4. Prospects for development 18

1.5. Conclusion 19

1.6. Bibliography 19

Chapter 2. Coupled Use of Spatial Analysis and Fuzzy Arithmetic: Assessing the Vulnerability of a Watershed to Phytosanitary Products 23
Bertrand DE BRUYN, Catherine FREISSINET and Michel VAUCLIN

2.1. Introduction 23

2.2. Construction of the index 24

2.3. Implementation of fuzzy calculations 26

2.4. Application to the watershed of Vannetin: vulnerability to atrazine 28

2.4.1. The research site 28

2.4.2. Parameters of the watershed 28

2.4.3. Cell parameters 29

2.4.4. Fuzzy parameters 30

2.4.5. Representation of the indicator and of its related inaccuracy 31

2.5. Conclusion 33

2.6. Bibliography 36

Chapter 3. Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution 39
Philippe BOLO and Christophe BRACHET

3.1. Introduction 39

3.2. Mapping non-point source pollution phenomenon 40

3.2.1. Mapping principles 40

3.2.2. Description of the research phenomenon 41

3.2.3. Mapping steps 41

3.3. Territorial database building rules 42

3.3.1. Choosing software programs 43

3.3.2. Design of the implemented GIS 44

3.3.3. Organizing and creating geographic information layers 46

3.3.4. Organizing and creating attribute tables 47

3.4. The data sources used 48

3.4.1. Identifying the available information 48

3.4.2. Soil-related data 49

3.4.3. Topography-related data 52

3.4.4. Land use-related data 54

3.4.5. Land planning-related data 56

3.5. Pollution risk zoning 58

3.5.1. Treatments to be performed 58

3.5.2. An example of risk zoning 60

3.6. Risk zoning applications 66

3.6.1. Risk knowledge applications 67

3.6.2. Spatial planning applications 67

3.6.3. Applications related to monitoring water quality 68

3.7. Conclusion 69

3.8. Bibliography 70

Chapter 4. Cartographic Index and History of Road Sites that Face Natural Hazards in the Province of Turin 71
Paola ALLEGRA, Laura TURCONI and Domenico TROPEANO

4.1. Introduction 71

4.2. Principal risks 73

4.3. Research area 74

4.3.1. Geological insight 74

4.3.2. Morphology of the research areas 75

4.4. Working method 76

4.5. Computer-based synthetic analysis and transcription of historical data and information collected on the research area 78

4.6. First results 80

4.7. Structure of computer thematic mapping 82

4.8. Application and use of the method 84

4.9. Bibliography 85

Chapter 5. Forest and Mountain Natural Risks: From Hazard Representation to Risk Zoning – The Example of Avalanches 87
Frédéric BERGER and Jérôme LIÉVOIS

5.1. Introduction 87

5.1.1. General information on forests 87

5.1.2. The protective role of mountain forests 88

5.2. Identification of protective forest zones 90

5.2.1. General principle 90

5.2.2. Methodology 90

5.2.3. Building up a synthesis map of natural hazards 91

5.2.4. Building up the forest map 102

5.2.5. Building up the natural forest-hazard synthesis map 102

5.2.6. Building up the map of socio-economic issues and vulnerability 103

5.2.7. Building up the priority areas for forestry action map 104

5.3. Perspectives 105

5.4. The creation of green zones in risk prevention plans 106

5.4.1. Natural hazard prevention plans 106

5.4.2. Transfer from researchers to users 107

5.4.3. The method used 108

5.4.4. Consequences of these works 111

5.4.5. Reflections and perspectives 111

5.5. Conclusion: general recommendations 112

5.6. Bibliography 112

Chapter 6. GIS and Modeling in Forest Fire Prevention 115
Marielle JAPPIOT, Raphaële BLANCHI and Franck GUARNIERI

6.1. Understanding forest fire risks 115

6.1.1. Risk 116

6.1.2. Description of the phenomenon 116

6.1.3. Particularities of fire risk 117

6.1.4. A spatio-temporal variation of forest fire risk 122

6.2. Forest fire management: risk mapping and the use of spatial analysis 123

6.2.1. Requirements with respect to forest fire risk assessment 123

6.2.2. Forest fire risk assessment and mapping: the use of geographic information systems 126

6.3. Using GIS to map forest fire risks 137

6.3.1. Forest fire risk assessment and mapping in the Massif des Maures (Department of Var): raster GIS 138

6.3.2. WILFRIED – fire fighting support (coupling GIS and model) 143

6.4. Conclusion 147

6.5. Bibliography 148

Chapter 7. Spatial Decision Support and Multi-Agent Systems: Application to Forest Fire Prevention and Control 151
Franck GUARNIERI, Alain JABER and Jean-Luc WYBO

7.1. Introduction 151

7.2. Natural risk prevention support and the need for cooperation between the software programs 152

7.2.1. The cooperation issue between the information systems 152

7.2.2. The various approaches aiming at facilitating this type of cooperation 153

7.3. Towards an intelligent software agent model to satisfy the cooperation between the decision-support systems dedicated to natural risk prevention 154

7.3.1. The multi-agent paradigm 154

7.3.2. Intelligent software agents 155

7.3.3. A proposed intelligent software agent model 157

7.4. Experiment in the field of forest fire prevention and control 158

7.4.1. Context of the experiment 158

7.4.2. The experiment scenario 160

7.4.3. First part of the scenario 160

7.4.4. Second part of the scenario 161

7.4.5. An example of problem solving 165

7.4.6. Conclusion of the scenario 166

7.5. Conclusions and perspectives 166

7.6. Bibliography 167

Chapter 8. Flood Monitoring Systems 169
Jean-Jacques VIDAL and Noël WATRIN

8.1. Introduction 169

8.2. Flood monitoring and warning 170

8.3. Situation diversity 171

8.3.1. Spatial information for a better understanding of the phenomenon 173

8.3.2. Spatial information for flood impact assessment 174

8.4. Technical answers 175

8.4.1. Hydrological observing networks 175

8.4.2. Data processing 176

8.4.3. The integration of acquired knowledge in the natural hazard prevention policy 178

8.5. Conclusion 178

8.6. Bibliography 179

Chapter 9. Geography Applied to Mapping Flood-Sensitive Areas: A Methodological Approach 181
Christophe PRUNET and Jean-Jacques VIDAL

9.1. Introduction 181

9.2. A geographic analysis of flooding 182

9.2.1. Intensity 182

9.2.2. Frequency 182

9.2.3. Extension 185

9.3. A concrete example 188

9.4. Bibliography 190

Chapter 10. Information Systems and Diked Areas: Examples at the National, Regional and Local Levels 193
Pierre MAUREL, Rémy TOURMENT and William HALBECQ

10.1. Context 193

10.2. Analysis of the current situation for the management of diked areas 195

10.3. Spatial dimension and integrated management of diked areas 197

10.4. Examples of information systems dedicated to diked areas 198

10.4.1. An information system at the national level for dike inventory 199

10.4.2. An information system at the regional level to analyze dike failure risks in the Mid-Loire region 200

10.4.3. An information system at local level for the integrated management of diked areas 203

10.5. Recent progress and perspectives 212

10.6. Bibliography 213

Chapter 11. Geomatics and Urban Risk Management: Expected Advances 215
Jean-Pierre ASTÉ

11.1. Towns, risks and geomatics 215

11.1.1. An overview 215

11.1.2. City: a much sought after security area 216

11.1.3. Risk: a poorly understood notion 217

11.1.4. Geomatics as a data structuring and management tool 217

11.2. Prevention stakeholders: their responsibilities, their current resources and expectations 218

11.2.1. Ordinary state or emergency state 218

11.2.2. Government and institutional stakeholders 218

11.2.3. Municipal stakeholders and the populations they represent 219

11.2.4. Operational and technical stakeholders 220

11.2.5. Insurance agents 220

11.2.6. Scientific stakeholders 221

11.2.7. Compelled to live with an identified risk 222

11.3. Today’s methods and tools: strengths and weaknesses 223

11.3.1. Urban reference systems and the expected connection with the digitizing of cadastral maps 223

11.3.2. Managing experience 224

11.3.3. Knowledge and modeling of phenomena 226

11.3.4. Monitoring phenomena 227

11.3.5. Reducing vulnerability 227

11.3.6. Risk assessment 228

11.3.7. Macro and microeconomic approach 229

11.3.8. The means of exchange of experiences, skills and knowledge 230

11.3.9. Consultation, public information, training and culture 230

11.4. New potentialities using geomatic methods and tools 232

11.4.1. Geomatics 232

11.4.2. Acquiring and structuring spatial and temporal data 233

11.4.3. Modeling phenomena and behaviors 235

11.4.4. Task analysis and support to complete and control them 237

11.4.5. Managing experience and knowledge 238

11.4.6. Quantified and hierarchical appreciation of the risks involved 239

11.5. Some ongoing initiatives since the beginning of 2001 240

11.5.1. Examples from Lyon: the information system of the service of Balmes and the GERICO project 240

11.5.2. An Alpine concern: avalanche risk management 242

11.5.3. Risk management and natural or man-made subterranean caverns, mines and quarries 243

11.5.4. The RADIUS project of the international decade for natural disaster reduction (Décennie internationale pour la prevention des catastrophes naturelles (DIPCN)) 243

11.5.5. Bogotá and its risk and crisis information system (SIRE) 244

11.5.6. The COEUR project in preparation between the Rhône-Alpine and Mediterranean cities 244

11.5.7. The Base-In project of recording Grenoble’s historical floods 245

11.6. Assessment and outlook: fundamental elements of future systems 245

11.6.1. Territory 246

11.6.2. Phenomena 246

11.6.3. Stakeholders 247

11.7. Bibliography 247

List of Authors 249

Index 251

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