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Optoelectronic Sensors

Didier Decoster (Editor), Joseph Harari (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-078-3
256 pages
August 2009, Wiley-ISTE
Optoelectronic Sensors (1848210787) cover image
Optoelectronic sensors combine optical and electronic systems for numerous applications including pressure sensors, security systems, atmospheric particle measurement, close tolerance measurement, quality control, and more. This title provides an examination of the latest research in photonics and electronics in the areas of sensors.
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Preface xi

Chapter 1. Introduction to Semiconductor Photodetectors 1
Franck OMNES

1.1. Brief overview of semiconductor materials 1

1.2. Photodetection with semiconductors: basic phenomena 3

1.3. Semiconductor devices 4

1.4. p-n junctions and p-i-n structures 5

1.5. Avalanche effect in p-i-n structures 7

1.6. Schottky junction  8

1.7. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures 10

1.8. Operational parameters of photodetectors 11

Chapter 2. PIN Photodiodes for the Visible and Near-Infrared 15
Baudoin DE CREMOUX

2.1. Introduction 15

2.2. Physical processes occurring in photodiodes 17

2.3. Static characteristics of PIN photodiodes 25

2.4. Dynamic characteristics of PIN photodiodes 34

2.5. Semiconductor materials used in PIN photodiodes for the visible and near-infrared 42

2.6. New photodiode structures 49

2.7. Bibliography 55

Chapter 3. Avalanche Photodiodes 57
Gérard RIPOCHE and Joseph HARARI

3.1. Introduction 57

3.2. History 58

3.3. The avalanche effect 60

3.4. Properties of avalanche photodiodes 66

3.5. Technological considerations 76

3.6. Silicon avalanche photodiodes 80

3.7. Avalanche photodiodes based on gallium arsenide 88

3.8. Germanium avalanche photodiodes 90

3.9. Avalanche photodiodes based on indium phosphate (InP) 95

3.10. III-V low-noise avalanche photodiodes 100

3.11. Prospects 104

3.12. Conclusion 106

3.13. Bibliography 107

Chapter 4. Phototransistors 111
Carmen GONZALEZ and Antoine MARTY

4.1. Introduction 111

4.2. Phototransistors 112

4.3. The bipolar phototransistor: description and principles of operation 118

4.4. Photodetector circuits based on phototransistors 140

4.5. Applications 142

4.6. Conclusion 150

4.7. Bibliography 151

Chapter 5. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodiodes 155
Joseph HARARI and Vincent MAGNIN

5.1. Introduction 155

5.2. Operation and structure 156

5.3. Static and dynamic characteristics 165

5.4. Integration possibilities and conclusion 177

5.5. Bibliography 178

Chapter 6. Ultraviolet Photodetectors 181
Franck OMNES and Eva MONROY

6.1. Introduction 181

6.2. The UV-visible contrast 189

6.3. Si and SiC photodetectors for UV photodetection 190

6.4. UV detectors based on III-V nitrides 195

6.5. Conclusion 216

6.6. Bibliography 218

Chapter 7. Noise in Photodiodes and Photoreceiver Systems 223
Robert ALABEDRA and Dominique RIGAUD

7.1. Mathematical tools for noise 224

7.2. Fundamental noise sources 227

7.3. Excess noise 232

7.4. Analysis of noise electrical circuits 235

7.5. Noise in photodetectors 239

7.6. Noise optimization of photodetectors 245

7.7. Calculation of the noise of a photoreceiver 253

7.8. Comments and conclusions 266

7.9. Bibliography 268

List of Authors 269

Index 271

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