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Power Systems and Restructuring

ISBN: 978-1-84821-120-9
704 pages
October 2009, Wiley-ISTE
Power Systems and Restructuring (1848211201) cover image
The development of electric power systems has been made up of incremental innovations from the end of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century. The creation of deregulated electricity markets has brought about an emerging paradigm in which the relationships between producers, power system operators and consumers have changed enormously compared to the monopolistic case.

The scope of this book is to provide fundamental concepts of the physics and operation of transmission and distribution lines, which is the content of Part 1, followed by the models and tools for the description and simulation of large electrical grids for steady state and transient operation. These advanced tools allow the physics and technology of power systems to be described and the algorithms of Ybus and Zbus matrices to be built for various studies such as short-circuit studies and load flow or transient phenomena analysis.

Part 3 deals with the new organization concepts in the frame of deregulated markets. In this part the restructuring of the power industry is presented where various actors interact together through market places or bilateral contracts. In addition, the operation of the power grids under this deregulated context is detailed and the relationships between power system operators and market actors (energy producers and providers, traders, etc.) is explained with several examples. The ancillary services, congestion management and grid access concepts are also described.

A large number of exercises and problems disseminated throughout the book with solutions at the end enable the reader to check his understanding of the content at any time.

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Foreword xvii

Introduction xix

Part 1. Transmission Lines and Electric Power Networks 1

Chapter 1. The Two Paradigms of the World Electrical Power System 3

1.1. Introduction 3

1.2. The historical paradigm 5

1.4. Distributed generation 15

Chapter 2. Production of Electrical Energy 17

Chapter 3. General Information on Electrical Power Networks 21

3.1. Transmission and distribution systems 21

3.2. Voltages 23

3.3. Power transfer 25

Chapter 4. Network Architecture 27

4.1. Network architecture: mesh or radial layout 27

4.2. Line and cable technologies 33

4.3. Network components 40

4.4. Short-circuit power 51

4.5. Real and reactive power in sinusoidal situations 55

Chapter 5. Operation of Electric Lines 59

5.1 Operational equations (physical phenomena) 59

5.2. Modeling of lines under steady-state conditions 75

5.3. Exercises 108

Chapter 6. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission 113

6.1. Advantages, disadvantages and fields of application 114

6.2. HVDC link between two points 115

6.3. Operating equations 123

Chapter 7. Three-phase Transmission Lines 127

7.1. Line characteristics 127

7.2. Equations of three-phase lines 134

7.3. Modes of propagation 136

7.4. Exercise No. 11: calculation of parameters of three-phase lines 147

Chapter 8. Electrical Transients in Transmission 149

8.1. Transient analysis using Laplace transform 150

8.2. Method of traveling waves 164

Part 2. Analysis Methods of Electrical Power Systems 173

Chapter 9. Functions of Electrical Energy Systems 175

9.1. Introduction 175

9.2. Hierarchy and representation of electrical power systems 179

Chapter 10. Network Representation 183

10.1. Graphical and topological description of a network 183

10.2. Network global modeling: the CIM model 186

10.3. Matrix representation of networks 187

Chapter 11. Formation of Network Matrices 207

11.1. Formation of the Ybus matrix 208

11.2. Formation of the Zbus matrix 210

11.3. Exercises 220

Chapter 12. Load Flow Calculations 223

12.1. Objectives 223

12.2. Model of network elements 224

12.3. Problem formulation 226

12.4. Solution methods 228

12.5. Software tools for load flow analysis 241

12.6. Principle of numerical iterative methods 241

12.7 Exercises 244

Chapter 13. Transient Analysis Methods 249

13.1. Interest in transient analysis 249

13.2. Transient network analyzer 251

13.3. The method of traveling waves 253

13.4. Conclusions 265

13.5. Exercises 266

Chapter 14. Fault Current Calculations 271

14.1. Definition 271

14.2. Effects of short-circuit conditions 271

14.3. Common causes of faults 272

14.4. Importance of short-circuit current calculations 273

14.5. Types of short circuits 273

14.6. Notion of short-circuit power 275

14.7. Polyphase balanced and unbalanced systems 276

14.8. Generalization of fault calculation in complex networks 296

14.9. Three-phase symmetrical fault current calculations 296

14.10. Symmetrical fault current: systematic approach 298

14.11. Expression of short-circuit current and short-circuit power 302

14.12. Asymmetrical fault current calculations 303

14.13 Exercises 319

Chapter 15. Stability Analysis of Power Systems 323

15.1. Objective 323

15.2. Introduction 323

15.3. Categories and classes of stability problems 324

15.4. The equation of motion 326

15.5. Simplified model of a synchronous machine 331

15.6. Power-angle considerations at steady state 333

15.7. Case of small perturbations 337

15.8. Transient stability 339

15.9. Application of equal-area criteria 343

15.10. Case of a multi-machine system 351

15.11 Exercise No. 22: stability and critical fault clearing time 352

Part 3. Management of Electricity Networks in a Competitive Environment 355

Chapter 16. Basic Electrical System 357

16.1. Introduction 357

16.2. Means of power generation 361

16.3. Transmission network 372

16.4. Distribution network 375

16.5. Consumption 377

16.6. System monitoring 381

16.7. Need for network interconnections 385

16.8. Conclusion 390

Chapter 17. Liberalization of Energy Markets 391

17.1. Introduction 391

17.2. Main electrical system features 393

17.3. Case prior to liberalization: monopoly regime 393

17.4. Liberalization of energy markets: reasons for change 396

17.5. Guidelines and regulations 399

17.6. Liberalization of energy markets: the concept of unbundling 401

17.7. Liberalization of energy markets: industrial movement 405

17.8. Liberalization of energy markets: different market segments and players 405

17.9. Conclusion 418

Chapter 18. Description and Models of Energy Markets 419

18.1. Introduction 419

18.2. Organized market model type 420

18.3. Bilateral market model 424

18.4. Other models 424

18.5. Different markets 427

18.6. Interaction and coupling of markets 430

18.7. Market adjustment 431

18.8. Responsibilities, different markets and interactions 433

18.9. Treatment of losses 433

18.10. Factors influencing prices and their variation 436

18.11. Conclusion 441

Chapter 19. Ancillary Services 443

19.1. Introduction 443

19.2. Some definitions 444

19.3. Frequency adjustment and control 445

19.4. Voltage control 451

19.5. System recovery 455

19.6. Management of ancillary services 455

19.7. Market-based mechanisms for ancillary services 456

19.8. Cost allocation of ancillary services 461

19.9. Example of cost of ancillary services 461

19.10. Conclusion 461

Chapter 20. Available Transmission Capability (ATC) 465

20.1. Introduction 465

20.2. Calculation of maximum power transfer capabilities 467

20.3. Directional aspects and time line in calculating ATC 474

20.4. Availability of information on ATC to market participants 475

20.5. Mechanisms for allocating cross-border capacities 476

20.6. Conclusion 477

Chapter 21. Congestion Management 479

21.1. Introduction 479

21.2. Congestion phenomenon in transmission networks 480

21.3. Factors influencing congestion 481

21.4. Congestion and the market 483

21.5. Technical resolution of congestion 485

21.6. Principle of nodal pricing 486

21.7. Principle of market splitting and zonal pricing 488

21.8. Case of a bilateral market 490

21.9. Case of re-dispatching without taking into account balance constraints of SCs 494

21.10. General formulation of the re-dispatching problem 495

21.11. Case of pool based on the calculation of nodal marginal prices 498

21.12. Hedging the risk of congestion cost 500

21.13. Conclusion 501

Chapter 22. Network Access and Charges 503

22.1. Introduction 503

22.2. Main costs and expenses of electricity transmission 505

22.3. Tariff objectives for electricity transmission 505

22.4. Methods of determining costs and price setting 506

22.5. Some regulation aspects of cost allocation 515

22.6. French example: principles of tariffs on the public transmission system 517

22.7. Tariff for network access in Europe 521

22.8. Conclusion 521

Part 4. Exercise Solutions 525

Chapter 23. Exercise Solutions 527

23.1. Exercise No. 1: per-unit system 527

23.2. Exercise No. 2: parameters of single-phase line 532

23.3. Exercise No. 3: power transfer 541

23.4. Exercise No. 4 550

23.5. Exercise No. 5 554

23.6. Exercise No. 6: lossless long line 559

23.7. Exercise No. 7: long three-phase line with losses 570

23.8. Exercise No. 8: single-phase long line 577

23.9. Exercise No. 9: series compensation of long lines 587

23.10. Exercise No. 10: parameters of a single conductor 593

23.11. Exercise No. 11: calculation of parameters of three-phase lines 597

23.12. Exercise No. 12: construction of Zbus matrix 607

23.13. Exercise No. 13: construction of network matrices 612

23.14. Exercise No. 14: load flow calculations 617

23.15. Exercise No. 15: power flow 630

23.16. Exercise No. 16: matrices and load flow 630

23.17. Exercise No. 17: transient analysis of a line 631

23.18. Exercise No. 18: matrices and transient analysis 632

23.19. Exercise No. 19: transfer analysis under lightning strike 632

23.20. Exercise No. 20: fault current in a simple network 633

23.21. Exercise No. 21: symmetrical fault on a network 648

23.22 Exercise No. 22: stability and critical fault clearing time 659

References 665

Index 671

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