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Materials under Extreme Loadings: Application to Penetration and Impact

Georges Voyiadjis (Editor), Eric Buzaud (Editor), Ioan R. Ionescu (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-184-1
448 pages
March 2010, Wiley-ISTE
Materials under Extreme Loadings: Application to Penetration and Impact (1848211848) cover image
This book presents recent and cutting edge advances in our understanding of key aspects of the response of materials under extreme loads that take place during high velocity impact and penetration. The focus of the content is on the numerous challenges associated with characterization and modeling of complex interactions that occur during these highly dynamic events.
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Preface xv

Chapter 1. Geomaterials Under Extreme Loading: The Natural Case 1
Philippe LAMBERT and Hervé TRUMEL

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Natural impacts 2

1.3. Discussion 27

1.4. Conclusions 32

1.5. Bibliography 33

PART 1. EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION 45

Chapter 2. The Shock Properties of Concrete and Related Materials 47
Kostas TSEMBELIS, David J. CHAPMAN, Christopher H. BRAITHWAITE, John E. FIELD and William G. PROUD

2.1. Introduction 47

2.2. Experimental studies 53

2.3. Conclusion 65

2.4. Acknowledgments 65

2.5. Bibliography 66

Chapter 3. Comparison of Shocked Sapphire and Alumina 69
Geremy KLEISER, Lalit CHHABILDAS and William REINHART

3.1. Abstract 69

3.2. Introduction 70

3.3. Material 71

3.4. Experimental method 72

3.5. Experimental results 73

3.6. Conclusions 84

3.7. Acknowledgments 84

3.8. Bibliography 84

Chapter 4. Observations of Ballistic Impact Damage in Glass Laminate 87
Stephan BLESS

4.1. Introduction 87

4.2. Transient measurements 88

4.3. Post-test measurements 90

4.4. Multiple impacts 97

4.5. Discussion and summary 97

4.6. Acknowledgments 98

4.7. Bibliography 98

Chapter 5. Experimental Analysis of Concrete Behavior Under High Confinement 101
Xuan Hong VU, Yann MALECOT, Laurent DAUDEVILLE and Eric BUZAUD

5.1. Introduction 101

5.2. Experimental device 102

5.3. Influence of the water/cement ratio 105

5.4. Influence of the coarse aggregate size 106

5.5. Influence of the cement paste volume 113

5.6. Conclusion and future work 116

5.7. Acknowledgment 118

5.8. Bibliography 118

Chapter 6. 3D Imaging and the Split Cylinder Fracture of Cement-Based Composites 121
Eric LANDIS

6.1. Introduction 121

6.2. Methods and materials 122

6.3. Experiments and analysis 126

6.4. Experimental results 128

6.5. Conclusions 129

6.6. Bibliography 130

Chapter 7. Testing Conditions on Kolsky Bar 131
Weinong CHEN

7.1. Introduction 131

7.2. Kolsky bar 132

7.3. Limitations of the Kolsky bar 133

7.4. Methods for conducting valid Kolsky bar experiments 136

7.5. Conclusions 142

7.6. Bibliography 143

PART 2. MATERIAL MODELING 145

Chapter 8. Experimental Approach and Modeling of the Dynamic Tensile Behavior of a Micro-Concrete 147
Pascal FORQUIN and Benjamin ERZAR

8.1. Introduction 147

8.2. Experimental device 149

8.3. Data processing 151

8.4. Experimental results 154

8.5. Modeling of the damage process in concrete at high strain-rates (the Denoual, Forquin, Hild model) 158

8.6. Conclusion 172

8.7. Bibliography 175

Chapter 9. Toward Physically-Based Explosive Modeling: Meso-Scale Investigations 179
Hervé TRUMEL, Philippe LAMBERT, Guillaume VIVIER and Yves SADOU

9.1. Introduction 179

9.2. Methodology 181

9.3. The material: microstructure and macroscopic mechanical behavior 182

9.4. Samples from unitary experiments 185

9.5. Analysis of a recovered target 193

9.6. Discussion 198

9.7. Conclusion and future work 204

9.8. Acknowledgments 204

9.9. Bibliography 204

Chapter 10. Coupled Viscoplastic Damage Model for Hypervelocity Impact Induced Damage in Metals and Composites 209
George Z. VOYIADJIS

10.1. Introduction 209

10.2. Theoretical preliminaries for high velocity impact 212

10.3. A coupled rate-dependent (viscoplasticity) continuum damage theory 214

10.4. Computational aspects of the proposed theory 220

10.5. Numerical applications 228

10.6. Conclusions 240

10.7. Bibliography 241

Chapter 11. High-Pressure Behavior of Concrete: Experiments and Elastic/Viscoplastic Modeling 247
Martin J. SCHMIDT, Oana CAZACU and Mark L. GREEN

11.1. Introduction 247

11.2. Experimental study 249

11.3. Elastic-viscoplastic model development 254

11.4. Conclusions 263

11.5. Bibliography 264

Chapter 12. The Virtual Penetration Laboratory: New Developments 267
Mark D. ADLEY, Andreas O. FRANK, Kent T. DANIELSON, Stephen A. AKERS, James L. O’DANIEL and Bruce PATTERSON

12.1. Introduction 267

12.2. Constitutive model development 268

12.3. Perforation simulations 278

12.4. Penetration simulations 282

12.5. CSPC penetration resistance equation 284

12.6. Conclusions 287

12.7. Acknowledgment 288

12.8. Bibliography 288

Chapter 13. Description of the Dynamic Fragmentation of Glass with a Meso-Damage Model 291
Xavier BRAJER, François HILD and Stéphane ROUX

13.1. Introduction 291

13.2. Experimental results 292

13.3. Fragmentation analysis 294

13.4. Microcracking analysis 299

13.5. A “meso-damage” approach 302

13.6. Conclusion 306

13.7. Acknowledgments 307

13.8. Bibliography 307

PART 3. NUMERICAL SIMULATION TECHNIQUES 311

Chapter 14. An Approach to Generate Random Localizations in Lagrangian Numerical Simulations 313
Jacques PETIT

14.1. Introduction 313

14.2. Numerical modeling 314

14.3. Electromagnetic compression and its regular use 318

14.4. Numerical simulations without rupture: copper and nickel samples 321

14.5. Numerical simulations with rupture: TA6V4 samples 323

14.6. Conclusion 328

14.7. Bibliography 330

Chapter 15. X-FEM for the Simulation of Dynamic Crack Propagation 333
Alain COMBESCURE

15.1. Energy conservation when a crack propagates: a key issue 333

15.2. Dynamic crack propagation laws 339

15.3. Experiments interpretation 341

15.4. Bibliography 348

Chapter 16. DEM Model of a Rigid Missile Impact on a Thin Concrete Slab 351
Frédéric DONZÉ, Wen-Jie SHIU and Laurent DAUDEVILLE

16.1. Introduction 351

16.2. The DEM model 353

16.3. Modeling of the impact tests 355

16.4. Influence of reinforcement ratio 358

16.5. Influence of the nose shape of missile 361

16.6. Conclusion 365

16.7. Bibliography 365

Chapter 17. The Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) for the Numerical Simulation of Concrete Behavior Subject to Penetration 369
Gianluca CUSATIS

17.1. Introduction 369

17.2. Review of LDPM formulation 371

17.3. Uniaxial compression strength tests 375

17.4. Three-point bending tests 377

17.5. Multiaxial compression strength tests 378

17.6. Hopkinson bar tests 380

17.7. Penetration through reinforced concrete slabs 382

17.8. Closing remark 384

17.9. Acknowledgments 385

17.10. Bibliography 385

Chapter 18. An Improved Contact Algorithm for Multi-Material Continuum Codes 389
Kenneth C. WALLS and David L. LITTLEFIELD

18.1. Introduction 389

18.2. Background 390

18.3. The contact-impact problem 391

18.4. Formulation 395

18.5. Finite element formulation 398

18.6. Calculations 401

18.7. Discussion 405

18.8. Conclusions 410

18.9. Bibliography 412

Chapter 19. Parallel Computing for Non-linear Concrete Modeling 415
Kent DANIELSON, Mark ADLEY and James O’DANIEL

19.1. Introduction 415

19.2. Explicit dynamic finite element analysis 416

19.3. Numerical methodologies 417

19.4. Numerical applications 421

19.5. Concluding remarks 429

19.6. Acknowledgments 430

19.7. Bibliography 431

List of Authors 433

Index 439

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