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Measurements using Optic and RF Waves

ISBN: 978-1-84821-187-2
336 pages
January 2010, Wiley-ISTE
Measurements using Optic and RF Waves (1848211872) cover image
Scientific and technical knowledge for measurements in modern electromagnetism must be vast as our electromagnetic environment covers all frequencies and wavelengths. These measurements must be applied to fields as varied as nanotechnologies, telecommunications, meteorology, geolocalization, radioastronomy, health, biology, etc. In order to cover the multiple facets of the topic, this book sweeps the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from several hertz to terahertz; considers distances ranging from nanometers to light-years in optics; before extending towards the various measurement techniques using electromagnetic waves for various applications. This book describes these different facets in eleven chapters, each covering different domains of applications.
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Preface xiii

Chapter 1. Electromagnetic Environment 1
Pierre-Noël FAVENNEC

1.1. Electromagnetic radiation sources 1

1.2. Electromagnetic fields 18

1.3. Bibliography 21

Chapter 2. From Measurement to Control of Electromagnetic Waves using a Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope 23
Loïc LALOUAT, Houssein NASRALLAH, Benoit CLUZEL, Laurent SALOMON, Colette DUMAS and Frédérique DE FORNEL

2.1. Introduction 23

2.2. Principle of the measurement using a local probe 24

2.3. Measurement of the electromagnetic field distribution inside nanophotonic components 30

2.4. Measuring the amplitude and phase in optical near-field 39

2.5. Active optical near-field microscopy 41

2.6. Conclusion 45

2.7. Acknowledgements 45

2.8. Bibliography 45

Chapter 3. Meteorological Visibility Measurement: Meteorological Optical Range 51
Hervé SIZUN and Maher AL NABOULSI

3.1. Introduction 51

3.2. Definitions 52

3.3. Atmospheric composition 53

3.4. Atmospheric effects on light propagation 54

3.5. Units and scales 57

3.6. Measurement methods 58

3.7. Visibility perturbation factors 68

3.8. Applications 71

3.9. Appendix – optical contrast and Koschmieder’s law 75

3.10. Glossary 77

3.11. Bibliography 78

Chapter 4. Low Coherence Interferometry 81
Xavier CHAPELEAU, Dominique LEDUC, Cyril LUPI, Virginie GAILLARD and Christian BOISROBERT

4.1. Introduction 81

4.2. Phase measurement 82

4.3. Metrology considerations 86

4.4. Applications 91

4.5. Conclusion 106

4.6. Bibliography 107

Chapter 5. Passive Remote Sensing at Submillimeter Wavelengths and THz 113
Gérard BEAUDIN

5.1. Introduction 113

5.2. Submillimeter-THz low noise heterodyne receivers 115

5.3. Submillimeter – THz applications for astronomy and astrophysics 120

5.4. Submillimeter – THz remote-sensing applications to aeronomy and planetology 124

5.5. Conclusion 126

5.6. Acknowledgements 127

5.7. Bibliography 127

Chapter 6. Exposimetry – Measurements of the Ambient RF Electromagnetic Fields 131
Pierre-Noël FAVENNEC

6.1. Introduction 131

6.2. Definitions 132

6.3. Interactions of the electromagnetic fields with biological tissues and medical risks 136

6.4. Exposure limit values 141

6.5. Electromagnetic environment to be measured 146

6.6. Measurement equipment 150

6.7. Measurements 159

6.8. Control stations and uninterrupted electromagnetic measurements: towards a 3D electromagnetic land register 175

6.9. Appendix 1 – some field measurements 176

6.10. Appendix 2 – principal characteristics of mobile communication systems 177

6.11. Bibliography 177

Chapter 7. Ambient RF Electromagnetic Measurements in a Rural Environment 181
Hervé SIZUN and Philippe MALIET

7.1. Introduction 181

7.2. Measurement set-up 182

7.3. Operating mode 184

7.4. Different studies 185

7.5. Measurements results 186

7.6. Electrical field strength 188

7.7. Conclusion 189

7.8. Acknowledgements 189

7.9. Bibliography 189

Chapter 8. Radio Mobile Measurement Techniques 191
Hervé SIZUN

8.1. Introduction 191

8.2. Field strength measurements 192

8.3. Measurement of the impulse response 195

8.4. Measurement of directions of arrival 198

8.5. WiFi measurements in a home environment (field strength, data rate) 216

8.6. Conclusion 222

8.7. Glossary 224

8.8. Acknowledgments 225

8.9. Bibliography 225

Chapter 9. Dosimetry of Interactions Between the Radioelectric Waves and Human Tissues – Hybrid Approach of the Metrology 229
Joe WIART and Man Faï WONG

9.1. Introduction 229

9.2. Evaluation of the power absorber for the tissues 230

9.3. Experimental evaluation of the specific absorption rate (SAR) 232

9.4. SAR evaluation in biological tissues 235

9.5. Variability, representativeness and uncertainty 242

9.6. Conclusions 245

9.7. Bibliography 246

Chapter 10. Measurement for the Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility 249
Philippe BESNIER, Christophe LEMOINE and Mohammed SERHIR

10.1. Introduction 249

10.2. General aspects of EMC measurement 250

10.3. Emissivity and radiated immunity testing 253

10.4. Efficiency and limitations of EMC measurement techniques 261

10.5. Mode-stirred reverberation chambers 262

10.6. Electromagnetic near-field measurement techniques applied to EMC 268

10.7. Conclusions and future prospects 272

10.8. Bibliography 272

Chapter 11. High Precision Pulsar Timing in Centrimetric Radioastronomy 277
Ismaël COGNARD

11.1. Introduction 277

11.2. Ultra-stable clocks to the limits of the Galaxy 277

11.3. Dispersion by the interstellar medium 280

11.4. Instrumentation used to study pulsars 281

11.5. Swept local oscillator dedispersion 282

11.6. Filterbank dedispersion 283

11.7. Real-time coherent dedispersion 284

11.8. The coherent pulsar instrumentation installed at Nançay 285

11.9. Conclusion 288

11.10. Bibliography 289

Chapter 12. Long Baseline Decameter Interferometry between Nançay and LOFAR 291
Philippe ZARKA

12.1. Introduction 291

12.2. Observations 293

12.3. Analysis 297

12.4. Conclusions and perspectives 303

12.5. Acknowledgements 305

12.6. Bibliography 305

List of Authors 307

Index 311

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