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Applied Metrology for Manufacturing Engineering

ISBN: 978-1-84821-188-9
544 pages
March 2011, Wiley-ISTE
Applied Metrology for Manufacturing Engineering (1848211880) cover image
Applied Metrology for Manufacturing Engineering, stands out from traditional works due to its educational aspect. Illustrated by tutorials and laboratory models, it is accessible to users of non-specialists in the fields of design and manufacturing. Chapters can be viewed independently of each other. This book focuses on technical geometric and dimensional tolerances as well as mechanical testing and quality control. It also provides references and solved examples to help professionals and teachers to adapt their models to specific cases. It reflects recent developments in ISO and GPS standards and focuses on training that goes hand in hand with the progress of practical work and workshops dealing with measurement and dimensioning.
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Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Error Analysis and their Uncertainties in Dimensional Metrology Applied to Science and Technology 1

1.1. Introduction to uncertainties in dimensional metrology 1

1.2. Definition of standards 4

1.3. Definition of errors and uncertainties in dimensional metrology 9

1.4. Errors and their impact on the calculation of uncertainties 15

1.5. Applications based on errors in dimensional metrology 35

1.6. Correction of possible measurement errors 42

1.7. Estimation of uncertainties of measurement errors in metrology 48

1.8. Approaches for determining type A and B uncertainties according to the GUM 53

1.9. Principle of uncertainty calculation: types A and B 69

1.10. Summary 82

1.11. Bibliography 83

Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Dimensional and Geometrical Tolerances According to ISO, CSA (Canada), and ANSI (USA) 85

2.1. Introduction to geometrical products specification 85

2.2. Dimensional tolerances and adjustments 89

2.3. International vocabulary of metrology 97

2.4. GPS standard covering ISO/TR14638-1995 103

2.5. Conicity according to ISO 3040-1990 136

2.6. Linear dimensional tolerances 139

2.7. Positioning a group of elements 143

2.8. GPS standards according to the report CR ISO/TR14638 of 1996 145

2.9. Rational dimensioning for a controlled metrology: indices of capability and performance indices statistical process specification 147

2.10. Summary and discussion 159

2.11. Bibliography 161

Chapter 3. Measurement and Controls Using Linear and Angular Standards 163

3.1. Key dimensional metrology standards 163

3.2. Meter, time, and mass 168

3.3. Deformations and mechanical causes of errors 170

3.4. Marble, V-blocks, gauge blocks, and dial gauges 180

3.5. Dial gauge 185

3.6. Example of a laboratory model 199

3.7. Precision height 200

3.8. The universal protractor vernier 205

3.9. Vernier calipers 211

3.10. Micrometer or Palmer 216

3.11. Summary 234

3.12. Bibliography 235

Chapter 4. Surface Control 237

4.1. Control and measurement of angles 237

4.2. Surfaces of revolution 241

4.2. Metric thread (M) measurement on gauge 258

4.4. Controls of cones on machine-tools 261

4.5. Control of flat surfaces 264

4.6. Control of cylindrical surfaces (of revolution) 270

4.7. Control of surfaces of revolution with spherical forms 281

4.8. Control of the relative positions of surfaces 290

4.9. Methods of dimensional measurement 294

4.10. Bibliography 308

Chapter 5. Opto-Mechanical Metrology 309

5.1. Introduction to measurement by optical methods 309

5.2. Principle of interferential metrology (example: prism spectroscope) 322

5.3. Flatness measurement by optical planes 325

5.4. Principle of interferoscope 326

5.5. Control of parallelism (case of parallel gauge-blocks) 330

5.6. Conclusion 339

5.7. Bibliography 340

Chapter 6. Control of Surface States 341

6.1. Introduction to surface states control for solid materials 341

6.2. Instruments for measuring surface state 348

6.3. Symbols used in engineering drawings to describe the appropriate surface state according to ANSI/ASME Y14.
36M-1996 349

6.4. Presentation of Mitutoyo Surftest 211 362

6.5. The main normalized parameters of surface states used in the industry, their formulas and definitions 370

6.6. Example on the control of the roughness of a plate grade 6061383

6.7. Calculations of the overall uncertainty in the GUM method compared to the Monte Carlo method using the software GUMic 391

6.8. Summary 392

6.9. Bibliography 393

Chapter 7. Computer-Aided Metrology-CAM 395

7.1. Coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) 395

7.2. Commonly-used geometric models in dimensional metrology 399

7.3. Nominal geometric elements 411

7.4. Description of styli and types of probing 415

7.5. Software and computers supporting the CMM 420

7.6. Starting a B504B-Mitutoyo CMM 423

7.7. Measurements on CMM using the Cosmos software 427

7.8. Examples of applications using CMM 443

7.9. Chapter summary and future extensions of CMMs 450

7.10. Bibliography 452

Chapter 8. Control of Assembly and Transmission Elements 453

8.1. Introduction to the control of components for temporary assembly and elements for power transmission: threads, gears, and splines 453

8.2. Helical surface for screw threads 459

8.3. The main threads in the industry 461

8.4. Principles of threads control 478

8.5. Screws resistance and quality classes 487

8.6. Control of screw thread by mechanical and optical comparison 491

8.7. Introduction to gear control 494

8.8. Introduction to spline control 518

8.9. Summary 529

8.10. Bibliography 530

Chapter 9. Control of Materials Hardness Testing 531

9.1. Introduction to non-destructive testing 531

9.2. Principle and description of the Rockwell hardness 537

9.3. Brinell hardness test 545

9.4. Principle of the Vickers hardness test 550

9.5. Knoop hardness (HK) 553

9.6. Barcol hardness 555

9.7. Rebound hardness test by Shore test (scleroscope) 556

9.8. Mohs hardness for minerals 558

9.9. IRHD rubber hardness tester 560

9.10. Comparison of the three main hardness tests and a practical approach for hardness testing: Brinell HB, Rockwell HR, and Vickers HV 562

9.11. Main mechanical properties of solid materials 564

9.12. Mechanical tests on plastic materials 575

9.13. Fatigue failure and dimensional metrology for the control of the dimensioning of materials assembled by
welding 578

9.14. Summary 583

9.15. Bibliography 587

Chapter 10. Overall Summary 589

Glossary 595

Lexicon of terms frequently used in metrology 595

Warning 596

Bibliography 613

Appendix 1 615

Appendix 2 631

Appendix 3 637

Appendix 4 641

Appendix 5 645

Appendix 6 665

Index 673

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