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Simulation of Complex Systems in GIS

ISBN: 978-1-84821-223-7
328 pages
January 2011, Wiley-ISTE
Simulation of Complex Systems in GIS (1848212232) cover image
This book provides a comprehensive view of geographical modeling. It first establishes the foundations of geographical modeling, covering such concepts as structure, organization, system, topologies, as well as the concept of time. Next, it tackles the use of computer tools for dynamic model building and presents several models applied to various themes, such as urban growth, natural risks, as well as political themes. Finally, a general model of the geographic agents system (GAS), which can be used as a basis for the construction of a model-building platform for dynamic spatial models is presented.
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General Introduction xi

PART 1. THE STRUCTURE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC SPACE 1

Part 1. Introduction 3

Chapter 1. Structure and System Concepts 5

1.1. The notion of structure 5

1.2. The systemic paradigm 10

1.3. The notion of organization 13

Chapter 2. Space and Geometry 29

2.1. Different theories of space 29

2.2. Geometry and its data structures 43

2.3. “Neat” geometry and “fuzzy” geometry 60

Chapter 3. Topological Structures: How Objects are Organized in Spatial Systems 67

3.1. Topology 67

3.2. Metrics and topologies 68

3.3. Calculated topology, structural topology 71

3.4. Hierarchization 78

Chapter 4. Matter and Geographical Objects 79

4.1. Geographic matter 79

4.2. The notion of observation 82

4.3. The geographic object: Definitions and principles 84

Chapter 5. Time and Dynamics 97

5.1. Time 97

5.2. Temporalities 100

5.3. Events, processes 105

5.4. Decomposition of a complex process 115

5.5. An epistemic choice: reciprocal dependency between the complexity levels of a phenomenon 117

Chapter 6. Spatial Interaction 121

6.1. Presentation of the concept 121

6.2. Definition of macroscopic interaction 125

6.3. The four elementary (inter)actions 127

6.4. Microscopic interaction like a multigraph 128

6.5. Composition of successive interactions 130

6.6. The configurations and the trajectories of a simulation are categories 131

6.7. Intermediary level matrix representation 133

6.8. Examples of interactions 134

6.9. First definition of the notion of spatial system 138

Part 1. Conclusion: Stages of the Ontogenesis 141

PART 2. MODELING THROUGH CELLULAR AUTOMATA 145

Chapter 7. Concept and Formalization of a CA 147

7.1. Cellular automata paradigm 148

7.2. Notion of finite-state automata 150

7.3. Mealy and Moore automata 151

7.4. A simple example of CA: the game of life 152

7.5. Different decompositions of the functions of a cell 153

7.6. Threshold automaton, window automaton 155

7.7. Micro level and Stochastic automaton 156

7.8. Macro level and deterministic automaton 156

7.9. General definition of a geographic cellular automaton 157

7.10. Different scheduling regimes of the internal tasks of the system 160

7.11. Ports, channels, encapsulation 162

7.12. Interaction 164

7.13. Space associated with a geographic cellular automaton 168

7.14. Topology and neighborhood operator of a GCA 168

7.15. The notion of cellular layer 168

7.16. Hierarchized GCA models 169

Chapter 8. Examples of Geographic Cellular Automaton Models 171

8.1. SpaCelle, multi-layer cellular automaton 172

8.2. Example: the evolution model of the Rouen agglomeration 181

8.3. RuiCells 189

8.4. GeoCells 207

Part 2. Conclusion 235

PART 3. A GENERAL MODEL OF GEOGRAPHIC AGENT SYSTEMS 237

Part 3. Introduction 239

Chapter 9. Theoretical Approach of an Integrated Simulation Platform 241

9.1. For an integrated platform of simulation 241

9.2. General specifications 242

Chapter 10. A Formal Ontology of Geographic Agent Systems 245

10.1. The conceptual framework 245

10.2. The notion of a geographic agent system 247

10.3. A generalization of the notion of process 249

10.4. The notion of a geographic agent 250

10.5. The formalization of the notion of organization 258

10.6. The formalization of behavior 268

10.7. Formalization of a general AOC model 279

10.8. The Schelling model example 280

Part 3. Conclusion 283

General Conclusion 285

Acronyms 291

Bibliography 293

Index 299

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