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Silicon Technologies: Ion Implantation and Thermal Treatment

Annie Baudrant (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-231-2
368 pages
July 2011, Wiley-ISTE
Silicon Technologies: Ion Implantation and Thermal Treatment (1848212313) cover image
The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

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Preface xi
Annie BAUDRANT

Chapter 1. Silicon and Silicon Carbide Oxidation 1
Jean-Jacques GANEM and Isabelle TRIMAILLE

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Overview of the various oxidation techniques 3

1.3. Some physical properties of silica 17

1.4. Equations of atomic transport during oxidation 28

1.5. Is it possible to identify the transport mechanisms taking place during oxidation? 35

1.6. Transport equations in the case of thermal oxidation 48

1.7. Deal and Grove theory of thermal oxidation 53

1.8. Theory of thermal oxidation under water vapor of silicon 67

1.9. Kinetics of growth in O2 for oxide films < 30 nm 72

1.10. Fluctuations of the oxidation constants under experimental conditions 84

1.11. Conclusion 92

1.12. Bibliography 92

Chapter 2. Ion Implantation 103
Jean-Jacques GROB

2.1. Introduction 103

2.2. Ion implanters 105

2.3. Ion range 111

2.4. Creation and healing of the defects 124

2.5. Applications in traditional technologies and new tendencies 136

2.6. Conclusion 147

2.7. Bibliography 147

Chapter 3. Dopant Diffusion: Modeling and Technological Challenges 155
Daniel MATHIOT

3.1. Introduction 155

3.2. Diffusion in solids 157

3.3. Dopant diffusion in single-crystal silicon 176

3.4. Examples of associated engineering problems 191

3.5. Dopant diffusion in germanium 196

3.6. Conclusion 201

3.7. Bibliography 201

Chapter 4. Epitaxy of Strained Si/Si1-x Gex Heterostructures 209
Jean-Michel HARTMANN

4.1. Introduction 209

4.2. Engineering of the pMOSFET transistor channel using pseudomorphic SiGe layers 222

4.3. Engineering of the nMOSFET transistor channel using pseudomorphic Si1-yCy layers; SiGeC diffusion barriers
233

4.4. Epitaxy of Si raised sources and drains on ultra-thin SOI substrates 243

4.5. Epitaxy of recessed and raised SiGe:B sources and drains on ultra-thin SOI and SON substrates 248

4.6. Virtual SiGe substrates: fabrication of sSOI substrates and of dual c-Ge / t-Si channels 253

4.7. Thin or thick layers of pure Ge on Si for nano and opto-electronics 275

4.8. Devices based on sacrificial layers of SiGe 292

4.9. Conclusions and prospects 311

4.10. Bibliography 317

List of Authors 333

Index 335

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