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Electrical Distribution Networks

ISBN: 978-1-84821-245-9
512 pages
June 2011, Wiley-ISTE
Electrical Distribution Networks (1848212453) cover image
This book describes the fundamental aspects of the new generation of electrical distribution grids, taking as its starting point the opportunities that exist for restructuring existing infrastructure. It emphasizes the incorporation of renewable energy sources into the distribution grid and the need for a technological evolution towards the implementation of smartgrids.
The book is organized into two parts: the first part analyzes the integration of distributed energy sources into the distribution grid and the impact of these sources on grid operation. After a general description of the general characteristics of distribution grids and renewable energy sources, it then analyzes the economics of electrical energy distribution networks and presents the impact of these sources on grid operation. The second part of the book then analyzes the various functions which allow for safe operation of the grid and realization of the path towards real world application of smartgrids.
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Preface xv

Chapter 1. The Electrical Distribution Network: From Heritage to Innovation 1
Nouredine HADJSAÏD, Jean-Claude SABONNADIÈRE and Jean-Pierre ANGELIER

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. The new power system paradigm 6

1.3. Structure and characteristics of current distribution systems 7

1.4. Consumption 11

1.5. Transmission and distribution systems operators 13

1.6. Future challenges for the distribution system 17

1.7. The link between investment and quality 32

1.8. Financing mechanisms and investment actors of distribution systems 36

1.9. Conclusion 38

1.10. Glossary 38

1.11. Bibliography 39

Chapter 2. Characteristics of Distribution Networks 41
Marie-Cécile ALVAREZ-HÉRAULT, Raphaël CAIRE, Sylvain MARTINO, Christophe ANDRIEU and Bertrand RAISON

2.1. Part 1: the French network 41

2.2. The North American network 61

2.3. Bibliography 81

Chapter 3. Overview of Decentralized Means of Production 83
Haizea GAZTAÑAGA, Raphaël CAIRE, Seddik BACHA and Daniel ROYE

3.1. Introduction 83

3.2. Deregulation 84

3.3. Emergent means of production 85

3.4. Conclusion: a challenge and a development opportunity for mains power 119

3.5. Bibliography 119

Chapter 4. Connection to the Decentralized Production Network: Regulatory and Economic Aspects 123
Cédric CLASTRES, Philippe MENANTEAU and Lina-Maria RUIZ

4.1. Introduction 123

4.2. European policies and growth dynamics of REn 124

4.3. Incentive policies for the deployment of renewable energies 129

4.4. Integration and connection of new renewable energy producers to the network 141

4.5. The insertion of renewable energies into the electrical market 147

4.6. Bibliography 157

Chapter 5. Impacts of Distributed Generation on the Electrical Network 161
Raphaël CAIRE and Tuan TRAN-QUOC

5.1. Introduction 161

5.2. Impact of distributed generation on electrical parameters 164

5.3. Impacts on the design, planning and exploitation 191

5.4. Impacts on network equipment 197

5.5. Bibliography 200

Chapter 6. Photovoltaic Systems Connected to the Network 203
Tuan TRAN-QUOC and Seddik BACHA

6.1. Introduction to grid-connected PV production 203

6.2. Structure of photovoltaic inverters 207

6.3. Control/command of the grid side converter 217

6.4. Anti-islanding protection of PV systems 221

6.5. Impact on the voltage and harmonics of grid connected PV systems 225

6.6. Impact on the voltage 230

6.7. Impact on voltage unbalance 233

6.8. Conclusion 234

6.9. Bibliography 235

Chapter 7. Voltage Control in Distribution Systems with Dispersed Generation 237

7.1. Introduction: problems of voltage control 237

7.2. Voltage control in today’s distribution systems 241

7.3. Voltage control in distribution systems with DG 242

7.4. Conclusion 270

7.5. Bibliography 271

Chapter 8. Grid Integration of Wind Turbine Systems and their Ancillary Services Participation 273
Alexandre TENINGE, Daniel ROYE and Seddik BACHA

8.1. Wind energy: context 273

8.2. Integration of wind energy in electrical systems 276

8.3. Grid code requirements and wind farms 282

8.4. Wind turbines: principles and modeling aspect 290

8.5. Study of mixed wind farm integration in an islanded grid 301

8.6. Bibliography 311

8.7. Manufacturers websites 313

8.8. List of symbols 314

Chapter 9. Reliability of Distribution Systems with Dispersed Generation 315

9.1. New considerations and challenges for the reliability of distribution systems 315

9.2. Basic concepts of electrical network reliability 319

9.3. Objectives and use of probabilistic reliability studies 330

9.4. Basic concepts of Monte Carlo simulation 333

9.5. Some results of Monte Carlo method application 343

9.6. Conclusion 348

9.7. Bibliography 349

Chapter 10. Protection, Detection and Isolation of Faults in MV Networks in the Presence of Decentralized Production 351
Bertrand RAISON, Olivier CHILARD, Delcho PENKOV and Duc CONG PHAM

10.1. Introduction 351

10.2. Characteristics of faults in HVA distribution systems 353

10.3. Functioning of protection in MV networks in the presence of decentralized production 361

10.4. Detection of faults 373

10.5. Localization of faults in the presence of decentralized production 380

10.6. Bibliography 392

Chapter 11. Load Control in the Management of Distribution Systems 395
Didier BOËDA, Christophe KIENY and Daniel ROYE

11.1. Objectives of load control for the distributor 395

11.2. Controlled loads 397

11.3. Results for real-time control 403

11.4. Real-time load control with knowledge of houses’ characteristics 406

11.5. Optimized load control 407

11.6. Conclusion 413

11.7. Bibliography 414

Chapter 12. Power Electronics in the Future Distribution Grid 415
Seddik BACHA, David FREY, Erwan LEPELLETER and Raphaël CAIRE

12.1. Introduction 415

12.2. New context of distribution systems 416

12.3. PE systems in the context of existing networks 420

12.4. Current state of development 425

12.5. Conclusion 434

12.6. Bibliography 436

Chapter 13. Virtual Power Systems for Active Networks 439
Guillaume FOGGIA, Christophe KIENY and Joseph MAIRE

13.1. General context: towards an active network 439

13.2. Objectives 440

13.3. Concept of a virtual power plant (project FENIX) 442

13.4. Other developments: the Alp energy project 452

13.5. Prospects for virtual power plants on active network 454

13.6. Bibliography 457

Chapter 14. Towards Smart Grids 459
Nouredine HADJSAÏD and Jean-Claude SABONNADIÈRE

14.1. Introduction 459

14.2. Definitions of the smart grid 471

14.3. Objectives addressed by the smart grid concept 472

14.4. Stakeholders involved in the implementation of the smart grid concept 474

14.5. Research and scientific aspects of the smart grid 476

14.6. Conclusion 483

14.7. Bibliography 484

List of Authors 487

Index 489

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"This book offers a comprehensive and thorough exploration of both theoretical and practical tools needed for a new "intelligent energy network," typically referred to as a smart grid. . . The book should particularly interest researchers and engineers involved in the development of the new, more flexible and reliable distribution system of the future." (Book News, 1 October 2011)


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