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Marine Renewable Energy Handbook

ISBN: 978-1-84821-332-6
643 pages
January 2012, Wiley-ISTE
Marine Renewable Energy Handbook (1848213328) cover image
Marine renewable energy is a significant resource for generating electricity, and if some conversion technologies have already reached a certain level of maturity, others are emerging.
The originality of this multidisciplinary book is to offer a broad spectrum of knowledge from academic and industry experts of various origins. It deals with general aspects such as the specificities and constraints of the marine environment, the concepts of hydrodynamics and ocean engineering, as well as the industrial and economic sides necessary for the assembly of projects.
It also discusses conversion technologies such as offshore wind, tidal power plants, tidal stream turbines, wave energy converters and ocean thermal energy plants. Finally, two chapters are devoted to power electronic conversion and power transmission cables.
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Foreword xv
Michel PAILLARD

Preface xvii
Bernard MULTON

Chapter 1. Marine Environment and Energy Resources 1
Raymond NERZIC and Jean-Pierre MAZÉ

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Physical and potential resources 2

1.3. Physical aspects of the marine environment 12

1.4. Environmental data 17

1.5. Bibliography 22

Chapter 2. Constraints of the Marine Environment 23
Marc PREVOSTO, Peter DAVIES, Chantal COMPÈRE and Michel OLAGNON

2.1. Extreme conditions at sea 23

2.2. Materials in the marine environment 31

2.3. Bibliography 40

Chapter 3. Some Concepts of Hydrodynamics and Ocean Engineering 43
Aurélien BABARIT, Hakim MOUSLIM and Jean-Marc ROUSSET

3.1. The marine environment 43

3.2. Loads on marine structures 48

3.3. Numerical and experimental tools for analysis 55

3.4. Conclusion 65

3.5. Bibliography 65

Chapter 4. Marine Energy and Industrial Actors 67
Guy BESLIN and Jacques RUER

4.1. Why does marine energy concern large industrial players? 67

4.2. An energy source of immense potential 69

4.3. Marine energy: a sector reserved for industrial players and large-scale international investors 71

4.4. Example of offshore wind energy: the main players and industry in France 72

4.5. Industrial assembly 73

4.6. Industrial risks and how to manage them 75

4.7. Hazard management for interventions at sea 84

4.8. Design and maintenance of electricity-producing installations at sea 85

4.9. Policies and organization of maintenance 88

4.10. Operational and maintenance activities 90

4.11. Estimating maintenance costs 92

4.12. Decision-making by the investors 93

4.13. Conclusion 97

4.14. Bibliography 98

Chapter 5. Installation of Wind Turbines at Sea 101
Jacques RUER

5.1. Peculiarities of the marine environment 101

5.2. Design of the support structures of offshore wind turbines 104

5.3. Assembly of offshore wind turbines 111

5.4. Electrical cables 115

5.5. Access to offshore wind turbines 115

5.6. Floating wind turbines 117

Chapter 6. Conversion Systems for Offshore Wind Turbines 123
Cristian NICHITA and Brayima DAKYO

6.1. Evolution of wind energy technology 123

6.2. Estimating the wind energy resource 140

6.3. Wind turbines 151

6.4 Bibliography 168

Chapter 7. Production of Tidal Range Energy 173
Vincent DE LALEU

7.1. Tidal range energy – theory and potential 173

7.2. Potential of tidal range energy development 177

7.3. Tidal range energy in France: the Rance Tidal Power Plant 180

7.4. Tidal range energy in Canada – Annapolis 192

7.5. Tidal range energy in the United Kingdom – the Severn 197

7.6. Tidal range energy in South Korea – Sihwa 208

7.7. The challenges of tidal range energy 211

7.8. Bibliography 214

CHAPTER 8. CONCEPTS, MODELING AND CONTROL OF TIDAL TURBINES 219
Mohamed BENBOUZID, Jacques André ASTOLFI, Seddik BACHA, Jean Frédéric CHARPENTIER, Mohamed MACHMOUM, Thierry MAITRE and Daniel ROYE

8.1. Introduction 219

8.2. State of the art technology in tidal turbines 220

8.3. Modeling and control of tidal turbines 236

8.4. Bibliography 275

CHAPTER 9. PAIMPOL-BRÉHAT: DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST TIDAL ARRAY IN FRANCE 279
Pierre BRUN, Laurent TERME and Agnès BARILLIER

9.1. Introduction and context 279

9.2. Selection of technologies 287

9.3. Technical specifications of the project and the producible power 299

9.4. Administrative procedures 305

9.5. Conclusion and perspectives 309

9.6. Bibliography 310

CHAPTER 10. FEEDBACK FROM THE SABELLA TIDAL CURRENT TURBINE PROJECT 311
Jacques RUER

10.1. Introduction 311

10.2. Design of the Sabella turbines 311

10.3. The demonstration project Sabella D03 316

10.4. Conclusions 321

10.5. Bibliography 321

CHAPTER 11. WAVE ENERGY CONVERTERS 323
Judicaël AUBRY, Hamid Ben AHMED, Bernard MULTON, Aurélien BABARIT and Alain CLÉMENT

11.1. Presentation of the wave energy resource 324

11.2. Classification of wave energy converters 329

11.3. Direct wave energy converters with direct electromechanical conversion (type C5) 348

11.4. Fluctuations of power produced by wave energy converters 358

11.5. Bibliography 363

Chapter 12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: A Historical Perspective 367
Gérard NIHOUS and Michel GAUTHIER

12.1. The thermal resource of the oceans 367

12.2. Main principles of ocean thermal energy conversion 373

12.3. Georges Claude, the pioneer 378

12.4. A renaissance at the end of the 20th Century? 383

12.5. Reflections 400

12.6. Bibliography 401

Chapter 13. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Solutions Studied 405
Virginie LELARGE, Thierry BOUCHET, Brice HERMANT, Aurélien BOUHIER, Julian BERROU and Cédric AUVRAY

13.1 The industrial approach to ocean thermal energy conversion 405

13.2. The energy conversion system at the heart of OTEC 406

13.3. Integration of OTEC plants 435

13.4. An OTEC plant in the marine environment 452

13.5. Conclusion 461

13.6. Bibliography 461

Chapter 14. Electrical Conversion Systems 463
Jacques COURAULT

14.1. Historical introduction 463

14.2. General facts 464

14.3. Voltage inverters in pulse width modulation 488

14.4. Storage 519

14.5. Control of the voltage Ed 521

14.6. Filtering the output voltages 525

14.7. Transmission 536

14.8. Technology 553

14.9. Maintenance 567

14.10. Conclusion 567

14.11. Bibliography 569

Chapter 15. Cables for Collecting and Transmitting Energy Produced by Offshore Technologies 571
Pierre ARGAUT

15.1. Introduction 571

15.2. General facts 572

15.3. Functions of high-voltage cable systems 574

15.4. Manufacture of submarine cables 606

15.5. Principles and tools for the design of submarine cables 616

15.6. Tests of submarine cables 623

15.7. Specificities of DC cables 626

15.8. Specificities of dynamic cables 626

15.9. Electrical characteristics of submarine cables 626

15.10. New advances presented during JICABLE 2011 628

15.11. Bibliography 629

List of Authors 633

Index 637

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“The focus on a type of environment rather than a single technology may prove to be most useful, at least at initial stages of planning renewable energy development.”  (Book News, 1 April 2012)

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