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Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Modeling

ISBN: 978-1-84821-339-5
January 2012, Wiley-ISTE
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Modeling (1848213395) cover image
The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.
Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.
This book presents a detailed state of art of PEM fuel cell modeling, with very detailed physical phenomena equations in different physical domains. Examples and a fully coupled multi-physical 1.2 kW PEMFC model are given help the reader better understand how to use the equations.
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Introduction ix

Nomenclature xiii

Part 1: State of the Art: Of Fuel Cells Modeling 1

Chapter 1. General Introduction 3

1.1. What is a fuel cell? 3

1.2. Types of fuel cells 5

Chapter 2. PEMFC Structure 13

2.1. Bipolar plates 15

2.2. Membrane electrode assembly 16

Chapter 3. Why Model a Fuel Cell? 21

3.1. Advantages of modeling and simulation 22

3.2. Complex system modeling methods 23

3.3. Modeling goals 26

Chapter 4. How Can a Fuel Cell be Modeled? 31

4.1. Space dimension: 0D, 1D, 2D, 3D 31

4.2. Temporal behavior: static or dynamic 32

4.3. Type: analytical, semi-empirical, empirical 33

4.4. Modeled areas: stack, single cell, individual layer 34

4.5. Modeled phenomena 35

Chapter 5. Literature Models Synthesis 37

5.1. 50 models published in the literature 37

5.2. Model classification 42

Part 2: Modeling of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell 47

Chapter 6. Model Structural and Functional Approaches 49

Chapter 7. Stack-Level Modeling 53

7.1. Electrical domain 53

7.2. Fluidic domain 54

7.3. Thermal domain 61

Chapter 8. Cell-Level Modeling (Membrane-Electrode Assembly, MEA) 69

8.1. Electrical domain 69

8.2. Fluidic domain 85

8.3. Thermal domain 89

Chapter 9. Individual Layer Level Modeling 91

9.1. Electrical domain 91

9.2. Fluidic domain 104

9.3. Thermal domain 134

Chapter 10. Finite Element and Finite Volume Approach 141

10.1. Conservation of mass 141

10.2. Conservation of momentum 142

10.3. Conservation of matter 143

10.4. Conservation of charge 143

10.5. Conservation of energy 144

Part 3: 1D Dynamic Model of a Nexa Fuel Cell Stack 147

Chapter 11. Detailed Nexa Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Modeling 149

11.1. Modeling hypotheses 149

11.2. Modeling in the electrical domain 150

11.3. Modeling in the fluidic domain 159

11.4. Thermal domain modeling 179

11.5. Set of adjustable parameters 201

Chapter 12. Model Experimental Validation 205

12.1. Multiphysical model validation with a 1.2 kW fuel cell stack 205

Bibliography 227

Index 235

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