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Solar Energy at Urban Scale

Benoit Beckers (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-356-2
384 pages
June 2012, Wiley-ISTE
Solar Energy at Urban Scale (1848213565) cover image

Increasing urbanization throughout the world, the depletion of fossil fuels and concerns about global warming have transformed the city into a physical problem of prime importance. This book proposes a multi-disciplinary and systematic approach concerning specialities as different as meteorology, geography, architecture and urban engineering systems, all surrounding the essential problem of solar radiation.
It collects the points of view of 18 specialists from around the world on the interaction between solar energy and constructions, combining territorial, urban and architectural scales to better regulate energetic efficiency and light comfort for the sustainable city.
The main subjects covered are: measures and models of solar irradiance (satellite observations, territorial and urban ground measurements, sky models, satellite data and urban mock-up), radiative contribution to the urban climate (local heat balance, radiative-aerodynamics coupling, evapotranspiration, Urban Heat Island), light and heat modeling (climate-based daylight modeling, geometrical models of the city, solar radiation modeling for urban environments, thermal simulation methods and algorithms) and urban planning, with special considerations for solar potential, solar impact and daylight rights in the temperate, northern and tropical climates, and the requirement of urban solar regulation.

Contents

1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard.
2. Territorial and Urban Measurements, Marius Paulescu and Viorel Badescu.
3. Sky Luminance Models, Matej Kobav and Grega Bizjak.
4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation, Bella Espinar and Philippe Blanc.
5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact, Benoit Beckers.
6. Local Energy Balance, Pierre Kastendeuch.
7. Evapotranspiration, Marjorie Musy.
8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments, John Mardaljevic and George Janes.
9. Geometrical Models of the City, Daniel G. Aliaga.
10. Radiative Simulation Methods, Pierre Beckers and Benoit Beckers.
11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method, Tom van Eekelen.
12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone, Edward Ng.
13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights, Guedi Capeluto.
14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact, Frédéric Monette and Benoit Beckers.
Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- and Minisatellites) for Earth Observations, Théo Pirard.
Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO) Satellites (as of January 1, 2012), Théo Pirard.
Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget, Benoit Beckers.

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Introduction xiii

The Authors xvi

Chapter 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space: Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations 1
Théo PIRARD

1.1. To improve the weather forecasts 2

1.2. Technological challenges to spy and to map from orbit 3

1.3. Toward global environmental observers in space 6

1.4. The digital revolution of the ICTs for GIS applications 9

1.5. Suggested reading 12

Chapter 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements 13
Marius PAULESCU and Viorel BADESCU

2.1. Solar radiation at the Earth’s surface 13

2.2. Instrumentation 17

2.3. Radiation measurements in urban environment 29

2.4. Conclusions 33

2.5. Acknowledgments 33

2.6. Bibliography 33

Chapter 3. Sky Luminance Models 37
Matej KOBAV and Grega BIZJAK

3.1. CIE standard overcast sky (1955) 39

3.2. CIE standard clear sky (1996) 39

3.3. CIE standard general sky 40

3.4. All-weather model for sky luminance distribution – Perez 45

3.5. ASRC–CIE model 48

3.6. Igawa all-sky model 49

3.7. Absolute luminance 52

3.8. Visualization 54

3.9. Conclusion 54

3.10. Bibliography 55

Chapter 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar Radiation Estimation 57
Bella ESPINAR and Philippe BLANC

4.1. The solar resource 57

4.2. Ground measurements of the solar resource 60

4.3. Satellite images for SSI estimation 64

4.4. Two different approaches for satellite-based SSI estimation 68

4.5. Accuracy of satellite-based SSI estimations 74

4.6. Use of satellite observations for high-resolution solar radiation estimation78

4.7. Bibliography 92

Chapter 5. Worldwide Aspects of Solar Radiation Impact 99
Benoit BECKERS

5.1. Global energy budget at the Earth level 99

5.2. The distribution of solar radiation on the Earth’s surface 102

5.3. The Sun at different latitudes 107

5.4. The solar diagrams 108

5.5. Climate and housing 111

5.6. Solar energy at urban scale 113

5.7. Conclusions and perspectives 115

5.8. Bibliography 117

Chapter 6. Local Energy Balance 119
Pierre KASTENDEUCH

6.1. Introduction 119

6.2. Soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer model 120

6.3. Physiographic data and boundary conditions 121

6.4. Solar radiation transfers 123

6.5. Infrared radiation transfers 129

6.6. Other heat fluxes 131

6.7. Conclusions 134

6.8. Bibliography 135

Chapter 7. Evapotranspiration 139
Marjorie MUSY

7.1. Physical bases 140

7.2. Related interest of different types of evapotranspirating surfaces 142

7.3. From microscale to city scale: the modeling approaches 149

7.4. Conclusions154

7.5. Bibliography 154

Chapter 8. Multiscale Daylight Modeling for Urban Environments 159
John MARDALJEVIC and George M. JANES

8.1. Introduction 159

8.2. Background160

8.3. Visualizing the urban solar microclimate 167

8.4. The ASL building: a solar access study 173

8.5. Daylighting the New York Times building 180

8.6. Summary 187

8.7. Acknowledgments 187

8.8. Bibliography 187

Chapter 9. Geometrical Models of the City 191
Daniel G. ALIAGA

9.1. Introduction 191

9.2. Forward procedural modeling 194

9.3. Inverse procedural modeling 196

9.4. Simulation-based modeling 199

9.5. Example systems 200

9.6. Bibliography 200

Chapter 10. Radiative Simulation Methods 205
Pierre BECKERS and Benoit BECKERS

10.1. Introduction 205

10.2. Geometry 206

10.3. Loading 218

10.4. Computation model 223

10.5. Transient thermal coupled problem 232

10.6. Conclusion 234

10.7. Bibliography 234

Chapter 11. Radiation Modeling Using the Finite Element Method 237
Tom van EEKELEN

11.1. Basic assumptions 237

11.2. Visibility and view factors 239

11.3. Thermal balance equations 245

11.4. Finite element formulation 250

11.5. Example problems 254

11.6. Bibliography 257

Chapter 12. Dense Cities in the Tropical Zone 259
Edward NG

12.1. Introduction 259

12.2. Access to the sky 261

12.3. Designing for daylight 266

12.4. Designing for solar access 272

12.5. Designing with solar renewable energy 281

12.6. Conclusion 287

12.7. Bibliography 288

Chapter 13. Dense Cities in Temperate Climates: Solar and Daylight Rights 291
Guedi CAPELUTO

13.1. Introduction 291

13.2. Solar rights in urban design 292

13.3. Solar envelopes as a design tool 293

13.4. Solar envelopes as a tool for urban development 295

13.5. Regulations and applications 297

13.6. Methods of application 299

13.7. A simple design tool 300

13.8. Modeling the building shape for self-shading using the solar collection envelope 302

13.9. Daylight rights 306

13.10. Daylight access 306

13.11. Conclusions 308

13.12. Bibliography 309

Chapter 14. Solar Potential and Solar Impact 311
Frédéric MONETTE and Benoit BECKERS

14.1. Methodological considerations 312

14.2. Definition of the residential area 312

14.3. Estimation of irradiance and solar gains 319

14.4. Estimation of energy needs for heating 321

14.5. Results analysis 322

14.6. Perspectives and conclusions 331

14.7. Acknowledgments 332

14.8. Bibliography 332

Conclusion 335
Benoit BECKERS

APPENDICES 339

Appendix 1. Table of Europe’s Platforms (Micro- and Minisatellites) for Earth Observations 341
Théo PIRARD

Appendix 2. Commercial Operators of Earth Observation (EO) Satellites (as of January 1, 2012) 347
Théo PIRARD

Appendix 3. Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget 355
Benoit BECKERS

List of Authors 357

Index 361

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