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Formal Methods: Industrial Use from Model to the Code

ISBN: 978-1-84821-362-3
384 pages
June 2012, Wiley-ISTE
Formal Methods: Industrial Use from Model to the Code (184821362X) cover image

Although formal analysis programming techniques may be quite old, the introduction of formal methods only dates from the 1980s. These techniques enable us to analyze the behavior of a software application, described in a programming language. It took until the end of the 1990s before formal methods or the B method could be implemented in industrial applications or be usable in an industrial setting.
Current literature only gives students and researchers very general overviews of formal methods. The purpose of this book is to present feedback from experience on the use of “formal methods” (such as proof and model-checking) in industrial examples within the transportation domain.
This book is based on the experience of people who are currently involved in the creation and evaluation of safety critical system software. The involvement of people from within the industry allows us to avoid the usual problems of confidentiality which could arise and thus enables us to supply new useful information (photos, architecture plans, real examples, etc.).
Topics covered by the chapters of this book include SAET-METEOR, the B method and B tools, model-based design using Simulink, the Simulink design verifier proof tool, the implementation and applications of SCADE (Safety Critical Application Development Environment), GATeL: A V&V Platform for SCADE models and ControlBuild.

Contents

1. From Classic Languages to Formal Methods, Jean-Louis Boulanger.
2. Formal Method in the Railway Sector 
the First Complex Application: SAET-METEOR, Jean-Louis Boulanger.
3. The B Method and B Tools, Jean-Louis Boulanger.
4. Model-Based Design Using Simulink – Modeling, Code Generation, Verification, and Validation, Mirko Conrad and Pieter J. Mosterman.
5. Proving Global Properties with the Aid of the SIMULINK DESIGN VERIFIER Proof Tool, Véronique Delebarre and Jean-Frédéric Etienne.
6. SCADE: Implementation and Applications, Jean-Louis Camus.
7. GATeL: A V&V Platform for SCADE Models, Bruno Marre, Benjamin Bianc, Patricia Mouy and Christophe Junke.
8. ControlBuild, a Development Framework 
for Control Engineering, Franck Corbier.
9. Conclusion, Jean-Louis Boulanger.

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Chapter 1. From Classic Languages to Formal Methods 1
Jean-Louis BOULANGER

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Classic development 2

1.3. Structured, semi-formal and/or formal methods 33

1.4. Formal methods 39

1.5. Conclusion 45

1.6. Bibliography 49

Chapter 2. Formal Method in the Railway Sector the First Complex Application: SAET-METEOR 55
Jean-Louis BOULANGER

2.1. Introduction 55

2.2. About SAET-METEOR 56

2.3. The supplier realization process 62

2.4. Process of verification and validation set up by RATP 78

2.5. Assessment of the global approach 114

2.6. Conclusion 115

2.7. Appendix 116

2.8. Bibliography 122

Chapter 3. The B Method and B Tools 127
Jean-Louis BOULANGER

3.1. Introduction 127

3.2. The B method 128

3.3. Verification and validation (V&V) 137

3.4. B tools 141

3.5. Methodology 146

3.6. Feedback 150

3.7. Conclusion 155

3.8. Bibliography 155

Chapter 4. Model-Based Design Using Simulink – Modeling, Code Generation, Verification, and Validation 159
Mirko CONRAD and Pieter J. MOSTERMAN

4.1. Introduction 159

4.2. Embedded software development using Model-Based Design 162

4.3. Case study – an electronic throttle control system 164

4.4. Verification and validation of models and generated code 173

4.5. Compliance with safety standards 177

4.6. Conclusion 178

4.7. Bibliography 178

Chapter 5. Proving Global Properties with the Aid of the SIMULINK DESIGN VERIFIER Proof Tool 183
Véronique DELEBARRE and Jean-Frédéric ETIENNE

5.1. Introduction 183

5.2. Formal proof or verification method 184

5.3. Implementation of the SIMULINK DESIGN VERIFIER tool 193

5.4. Experience feedback and methodological aspects 211

5.5. Study case feedback and conclusions 218

5.6. Contributions of the methodology compared with the EN50128 normative referential 220

5.7. Bibliography 222

Chapter 6. SCADE: Implementation and Applications 225
Jean-Louis CAMUS

6.1. Introduction 225

6.2. Issues of embedded safety-critical software 225

6.3. Origins of SCADE 228

6.4. The SCADE data-flow language 231

6.5. Conclusion: extensions of languages for controllers and iterative processing 240

6.6. The SCADE system 246

6.7. Application of SCADE in the aeronautical industry 256

6.8 Application of SCADE in the rail industry 261

6.9. Application of SCADE in the nuclear and other industries 265

6.10. Conclusion 269

6.11. Bibliography 270

Chapter 7. GATeL: A V&V Platform for SCADE Models 273
Bruno MARRE, Benjamin BIANC, Patricia MOUY and Christophe JUNKE

7.1. Introduction 273

7.2. SCADE language 275

7.3. GATeL prerequisites 276

7.4. Assistance in the design of test selection strategies 279

7.5. Performances 283

7.6. Conclusion 284

7.7. Bibliography 285

Chapter 8. ControlBuild, a Development Framework for Control Engineering 287
Franck CORBIER

8.1. Introduction 287

8.2. Development of the control system 289

8.3. Formalisms used 300

8.4. Safety arrangements 311

8.5. Examples of railway use cases 318

8.6. Conclusion 323

8.7. Bibliography 323

Chapter 9. Conclusion 325
Jean-Louis BOULANGER

9.1. Introduction 325

9.2. Problems 326

9.3. Summary 327

9.4. Implementing formal methods 332

9.5. Realization of a software application 337

9.6. Conclusion 339

9.7. Bibliography 340

Glossary 345

List of Authors 351

Index 353

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