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Laser in Manufacturing

J. Paulo Davim (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-369-2
256 pages
April 2012, Wiley-ISTE
Laser in Manufacturing (1848213697) cover image


Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as “a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape”. Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds and dies, and biomedical applications.
The purpose of this book is to present a collection of examples illustrating the state of the art and research developments to lasers in manufacturing, covering laser rapid manufacturing, lasers in metal forming applications, laser forming of metal foams, mathematical modeling of laser drilling, thermal stress analysis, modeling and simulation of laser welding, and the use of lasers in surface engineering.
This book can be used as a research book for a final undergraduate engineering course or as a subject on lasers in manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, laser researchers, mechanical, manufacturing, materials or physics engineers, or professionals in any related modern manufacturing technology.


1. Laser Rapid Manufacturing: Technology, Applications, Modeling and Future Prospects, Christ P. Paul, Pankaj Bhargava, Atul Kumar, Ayukt K. Pathak and Lalit M. Kukreja.
2. Lasers in Metal Forming Applications, Stephen A. Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Esther T. Akinlabi and Tshilidzi Marwala.
3. Laser Forming of Metal Foams, Fabrizio Quadrini, Denise Bellisario, Erica A. Squeo and Loredana Santo.
4. Mathematical Modeling of Laser Drilling, Maturose Suchatawat and Mohammad Sheikh.
5. Laser Cutting a Small Diameter Hole: Thermal Stress Analysis, Bekir S. Yilbas, Syed S. Akhtar and Omer Keles.
6. Modeling and Simulation of Laser Welding, Karuppudaiyar R. Balasabramanian, Krishnasamy Sankaranarayanasamy and Gangusami N. Buvanashekaran.
7. Lasers in Surface Engineering, Alberto H. Garrido, Rubén González, Modesto Cadenas, Chin-Pei Wang and Farshid Sadeghi.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi
J. Paolo DAVIM

Chapter 1. Laser Rapid Manufacturing: Technology, Applications, Modeling and Future
Prospects 1
Christ P. PAUL, Pankaj BHARGAVA, Atul KUMAR, Ayukt K. PATHAK and Lalit M. KUKREJA

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Laser rapid manufacturing 2

1.3. Laser rapid manufacturing system 4

1.4. Various laser rapid manufacturing systems 13

1.5. Relevant processing parameters 16

1.6. Typical applications of LRM 24

1.7. LRM process modeling 41

1.8. LRM process control 51

1.9. Future prospects 57

1.10. Conclusion 59

1.11. Acknowledgments 60

1.12. Bibliography 60

Chapter 2. Lasers in Metal Forming Applications 69
Stephen A. AKINLABI, Mukul SHUKLA, Esther T. AKINLABI and Tshilidzi MARWALA

2.1. Introduction 69

2.2. Laser 70

2.3. Metal forming – introduction 72

2.4. Laser beam forming 73

2.5. LBF mechanisms 84

2.6. Advantages and disadvantages of LBF 91

2.7. LBF of a steel plate 92

2.8. Design of experiments 95

2.9. Sample characterization 100

2.10. Conclusion 104

2.11. Bibliography 104

Chapter 3. Laser Forming of Metal Foams 109
Fabrizio QUADRINI, Denise BELLISARIO, Erica A. SQUEO and Loredana SANTO

3.1. Introduction 109

3.2. Scientific background 110

3.3. Materials and experimental methods 113

3.4. Experimental results and discussion 117

3.5. Numerical modeling 127

3.6. Conclusions 134

3.7. Bibliography 135

Chapter 4. Mathematical Modeling of Laser Drilling 139
Maturose SUCHATAWAT and Mohammad SHEIKH

4.1. Introduction 139

4.2. Solid heating 141

4.3. Melting 145

4.4. Vaporization 151

4.5. Mathematical model of laser percussion drilling incorporating the effects of the exothermic
reaction 156

4.6. Experimental procedures for model verification 167

4.7. Results and discussion 168

4.8. Conclusion 173

4.9. Bibliography 173

Chapter 5. Laser Cutting a Small Diameter Hole: Thermal Stress Analysis 179
Bekir S. YILBAS, Syed S. AKHTAR and Omer KELES

5.1. Introduction 179

5.2. Modeling heating and thermal stress 181

5.3. Numerical simulation 184

5.4. Experimental 185

5.5. Results and discussion 186

5.6. Conclusion 201

5.7. Acknowledgements 201

5.8. Bibliography 201

Chapter 6. Modeling and Simulation of Laser Welding 203

6.1. Introduction 204

6.2. Process mechanisms 204

6.3. Operating parameter characteristics 206

6.4. Types 207

6.5. Material considerations 209

6.6. Applications of laser welding 211

6.7. Strengths and limitations of laser welding 212

6.8. Developments and advances in laser welding processes 213

6.9. Modeling and analysis of the laser welding process 214

6.10. A case study 220

6.11. Comparison of statistical analysis, the finite element method and an ANN 241

6.12. Conclusion 243

6.13. Acknowledgment 244

6.14. Bibliography 244

Chapter 7. Lasers in Surface Engineering 247
Alberto H. GARRIDO, Rubén GONZÁLEZ, Modesto CADENAS, Chin-Pei WANG and Farshid SADEGHI

7.1. Introduction 248

7.2. Characteristics of laser radiation 248

7.3. Advantages of laser devices 249

7.4. Laser surface cladding 250

7.5. Laser surface cladding by powder injection 253

7.6. Energetic study of the cladding process 257

7.7. Control parameters of laser surface cladding 264

7.8. Widely used materials and alloys 266

7.9. Laser surface treatments 266

7.10. Laser surface texturing techniques 272

7.11. Characterization of laser surface texturing 285

7.12. Bibliography 286

List of Authors 293

Index 297

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