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Vehicular Networks : Models and Algorithms

Andre-Luc Beylot (Editor), Houda Labiod (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-489-7
304 pages
June 2013, Wiley-ISTE
Vehicular Networks : Models and Algorithms (1848214898) cover image

Over the last few years vehicular networks have been receiving a lot of attention from academia, industry, standardization bodies, and the various transportation agencies and departments of many governments around the world. It is envisaged in the next decade that the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) will become an essential part of our daily life. This book describes models and/or algorithms designed to investigate evolutionary solutions to overcome important issues such as congestion control, routing, clustering, interconnection with long-term evolution (LTE) and LTE advanced cellular networks, traffic signal control and analysis of performances through simulation tools and the generation of vehicular mobility traces for network simulations.
It provides an up-to-date progress report on the most significant contributions carried out by the specialized research community in the various fields concerned, in terms of models and algorithms. The proposals and new directions explored by the authors are highly original, and a rather descriptive method has been chosen, which aims at drawing up complete states of the art as well as providing an overall presentation of the personal contributions brought by the authors and clearly illustrating the advantages and limitations as well as issues for future work.

Contents

1. Introduction
2. Congestion Control for Safety Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
3. Inter-Vehicle Communication for the Next Generation of Intelligent Transport System: Trends in Geographic Ad Hoc Routing Techniques
4. CONVOY: A New Cluster-Based Routing Protocol for Vehicular Networks
5. Complementarity between Vehicular Networks and LTE Networks
6. Gateway Selection Algorithms in a Hybrid VANET-LTE Advanced Network
7. Synthetic Mobility Traces for Vehicular Networking
8. Traffic Signal Control Systems and Car-to-Car Communications

About the Authors

André-Luc Beylot is Professor in the Telecommunication and Network Department of the ENSEEIHT of IRIT-T, University of Toulouse in France.
Houda Labiod is Associate Professor at Telecom ParisTech in the INFRES (Computer Science and Network) Department, France.

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Introduction xi
Houda LABIOD and André-Luc BEYLOT

Chapter 1. Congestion Control for Safety Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks  1
Razvan STANICA, Emmanuel CHAPUT and André-Luc BEYLOT

1.1. Introduction  1

1.2. Beaconing frequency  5

1.3. Data rate   7

1.4. Transmission power 10

1.5. Minimum contention window 12

1.6. Physical carrier sense   25

1.7. Conclusion 31

1.8. Bibliography  32

Chapter 2. Inter-Vehicle Communication for the Next Generation of Intelligent Transport Systems: Trends in Geographic Ad Hoc Routing Techniques 39
Xunxing DIAO, Kun-Mean MOU, Jian-Jin LI and Haiying ZHOU

2.1. Introduction  39

2.2. IVC-relating ITS projects 42

2.3. Wireless sublayer techniques  45

2.3.1. WLAN and WPAN (up to 300 m)     45

2.3.2. Dedicated short-range communication (up to 1 km)   47

2.3.3. Cellular networks (more than 1 km)   49

2.3.4. Comparison   50

2.4. Geographic routing techniques for VANET 52

2.4.1. Features of VANET     52

2.4.2. Localization   54

2.4.3. Unicast greedy routing  62

2.4.4. Geocast (multicast) routing       72

2.4.5. Delay tolerant network-based routing   75

2.4.6. Map-based routing          79

2.5. Conclusion and open issues        79

2.6. Acknowledgments   81

2.7. Bibliography 81

Chapter 3. CONVOY: A New Cluster-Based Routing Protocol for Vehicular Networks   91
Véronique VÈQUE, Florent KAISSER, Colette JOHNEN and Anthony BUSSON

3.1. Introduction  91

3.2. Clustering or network partitioning   94

3.2.1. General remarks on the partitioning of mobile ad hoc networks  94

3.2.2. Controlling the number of hops    96

3.2.3. Controlling the number of nodes  97

3.2.4. Role of the clusterhead     98

3.3. Mobility-based clustering in ad hoc vehicular networks    98

3.3.1. The dynamics of vehicular traffic in VANETs   99

3.3.2. Clustering according to the lane     101

3.3.3. Clustering depending on the relative speed between the vehicles  101

3.3.4. Clustering depending on the direction of the movement (movement-based)  101

3.3.5. Clustering depending on the radio link quality   102

3.3.6. Clustering depending on speed and relative speed 103

3.3.7. Clustering depending on the position, speed and direction 104

3.4. Clustering of VANETs for MAC and transport applications   105

3.4.1. Cluster-based MAC protocol     105

3.4.2. Clustering for transport applications  106

3.5. CONVOY: a vehicle convoy formation protocol 108

3.5.1. Intra-convoy communication protocol  110

3.5.2. Convoy formation algorithm   110

3.6. Assessment of the convoy formation protocol 117

3.6.1. Optimal parameters of the algorithm 119

3.6.2. Distribution of the length of convoys 120

3.6.3. Convoy stability 121

3.7. Conclusion 123

3.8. Bibliography  124

Chapter 4. Complementarity between Vehicular Networks and LTE Networks 131
Guillaume RÉMY, Sidi-Mohammed SENOUCI, François JAN and Yvon GOURHANT

4.1. Introduction  131

4.2. State of the art    135

4.3. General description of the proposed architecture 139

4.3.1. Network organization mechanisms for areas completely covered by LTE      139

4.3.2. Network organization mechanisms for areas that are not completely covered by LTE 140

4.3.3. Information collection application: LTE4V2X-C   141

4.3.4. Information dissemination application: LTE4V2X-D   141

4.4. Detailed description of the LTE4V2X-C protocol 141

4.4.1. Initialization phase    143

4.4.2. Maintenance  145

4.4.3. Extension for the areas not covered by the LTE  149

4.5. A detailed description of the LTE4V2X-D protocol  151

4.6. Performance evaluation   153

4.6.1. Hypotheses    153

4.6.2. The results of the simulation and their analysis  156

4.6.3. Analysis of the impact of the handover   164

4.7. Conclusion  168

4.8. Bibliography 169

Chapter 5. Gateway Selection Algorithms in Vehicular Networks    171
Ghayet e mouna ZHIOUA, Houda LABIOD, Nabil TABBANE and Sami TABBANE

5.1. Introduction  171

5.2. Clustering and gateway selection in VANET networks 173

5.2.1. Clustering in VANET networks  173

5.2.2. Gateway selection in a clustered/non-clustered VANET architecture 177

5.2.3. Conclusions    181

5.3. Gateway selection in a clustered VANET-LTE advanced hybrid network  182

5.3.1. Problem statement  182

5.3.2. LTE-advanced standard 183

5.3.3. Proposed algorithm   187

5.3.4. Conclusions    204

5.4. Conclusion 205

5.5. Bibliography 206

Chapter 6. Synthetic Mobility Traces for Vehicular Networking   209
Sandesh UPPOOR, Marco FIORE and Jérôme HÄRRI

6.1. Introduction  209

6.2. Generation process 212

6.2.1. Road topology database  212

6.2.2. Microscopic traffic flow description 215

6.2.3. Macroscopic road traffic description    218

6.3. Mobility simulators 220

6.3.1. Microscopic traffic simulators 220

6.3.2. Mesoscopic traffic simulators  221

6.3.3. Macroscopic traffic simulators  222

6.3.4. Interactions between simulators 223

6.4. Mobility traces 226

6.4.1. Perception 227

6.4.2. Small-scale measurements 230

6.4.3. Road traffic imagery      231

6.4.4. Roadside detectors  232

6.4.5. Sociodemographic surveys 233

6.4.6. Discussion 237

6.5. Bibliography  240

Chapter 7. Traffic Signal Control Systems and Car-to-Car Communications  247
Mounir BOUSSEDJRA, Nitin MASLEKAR, Joseph MOUZNA and Houda LABIOD

7.1. Introduction  247

7.2. Classification of traffic signal control systems 249

7.2.1. Static systems   250

7.2.2. Dynamic systems  251

7.3. Traffic signal control and car-to-car communication 269

7.4. Summary and conclusion 269

7.5. Bibliography  273

List of Authors   279

Index    281

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