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Vehicular Networks : Models and Algorithms

Andre-Luc Beylot (Editor), Houda Labiod (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-489-7
304 pages
June 2013, Wiley-ISTE
Vehicular Networks : Models and Algorithms (1848214898) cover image

Description

Over the last few years vehicular networks have been receiving a lot of attention from academia, industry, standardization bodies, and the various transportation agencies and departments of many governments around the world. It is envisaged in the next decade that the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) will become an essential part of our daily life. This book describes models and/or algorithms designed to investigate evolutionary solutions to overcome important issues such as congestion control, routing, clustering, interconnection with long-term evolution (LTE) and LTE advanced cellular networks, traffic signal control and analysis of performances through simulation tools and the generation of vehicular mobility traces for network simulations.
It provides an up-to-date progress report on the most significant contributions carried out by the specialized research community in the various fields concerned, in terms of models and algorithms. The proposals and new directions explored by the authors are highly original, and a rather descriptive method has been chosen, which aims at drawing up complete states of the art as well as providing an overall presentation of the personal contributions brought by the authors and clearly illustrating the advantages and limitations as well as issues for future work.

Contents

1. Introduction
2. Congestion Control for Safety Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
3. Inter-Vehicle Communication for the Next Generation of Intelligent Transport System: Trends in Geographic Ad Hoc Routing Techniques
4. CONVOY: A New Cluster-Based Routing Protocol for Vehicular Networks
5. Complementarity between Vehicular Networks and LTE Networks
6. Gateway Selection Algorithms in a Hybrid VANET-LTE Advanced Network
7. Synthetic Mobility Traces for Vehicular Networking
8. Traffic Signal Control Systems and Car-to-Car Communications

About the Authors

André-Luc Beylot is Professor in the Telecommunication and Network Department of the ENSEEIHT of IRIT-T, University of Toulouse in France.
Houda Labiod is Associate Professor at Telecom ParisTech in the INFRES (Computer Science and Network) Department, France.

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Table of Contents

Introduction xi
Houda LABIOD and André-Luc BEYLOT

Chapter 1. Congestion Control for Safety Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks 1
Razvan STANICA, Emmanuel CHAPUT and André-Luc BEYLOT

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. Beaconing frequency 5

1.3. Data rate 7

1.4. Transmission power 10

1.5. Minimum contention window 12

1.6. Physical carrier sense 25

1.7. Conclusion 31

1.8. Bibliography 32

Chapter 2. Inter-Vehicle Communication for the Next Generation of Intelligent Transport Systems: Trends in Geographic Ad Hoc Routing Techniques 39
Xunxing DIAO, Kun-Mean MOU, Jian-Jin LI and Haiying ZHOU

2.1. Introduction 39

2.2. IVC-relating ITS projects 42

2.3. Wireless sublayer techniques 45

2.3.1. WLAN and WPAN (up to 300 m) 45

2.3.2. Dedicated short-range communication (up to 1 km) 47

2.3.3. Cellular networks (more than 1 km) 49

2.3.4. Comparison 50

2.4. Geographic routing techniques for VANET 52

2.4.1. Features of VANET 52

2.4.2. Localization 54

2.4.3. Unicast greedy routing 62

2.4.4. Geocast (multicast) routing 72

2.4.5. Delay tolerant network-based routing 75

2.4.6. Map-based routing 79

2.5. Conclusion and open issues 79

2.6. Acknowledgments 81

2.7. Bibliography 81

Chapter 3. CONVOY: A New Cluster-Based Routing Protocol for Vehicular Networks 91
Véronique VÈQUE, Florent KAISSER, Colette JOHNEN and Anthony BUSSON

3.1. Introduction 91

3.2. Clustering or network partitioning 94

3.2.1. General remarks on the partitioning of mobile ad hoc networks 94

3.2.2. Controlling the number of hops 96

3.2.3. Controlling the number of nodes 97

3.2.4. Role of the clusterhead 98

3.3. Mobility-based clustering in ad hoc vehicular networks 98

3.3.1. The dynamics of vehicular traffic in VANETs 99

3.3.2. Clustering according to the lane 101

3.3.3. Clustering depending on the relative speed between the vehicles 101

3.3.4. Clustering depending on the direction of the movement (movement-based) 101

3.3.5. Clustering depending on the radio link quality 102

3.3.6. Clustering depending on speed and relative speed 103

3.3.7. Clustering depending on the position, speed and direction 104

3.4. Clustering of VANETs for MAC and transport applications 105

3.4.1. Cluster-based MAC protocol 105

3.4.2. Clustering for transport applications 106

3.5. CONVOY: a vehicle convoy formation protocol 108

3.5.1. Intra-convoy communication protocol 110

3.5.2. Convoy formation algorithm 110

3.6. Assessment of the convoy formation protocol 117

3.6.1. Optimal parameters of the algorithm 119

3.6.2. Distribution of the length of convoys 120

3.6.3. Convoy stability 121

3.7. Conclusion 123

3.8. Bibliography 124

Chapter 4. Complementarity between Vehicular Networks and LTE Networks 131
Guillaume RÉMY, Sidi-Mohammed SENOUCI, François JAN and Yvon GOURHANT

4.1. Introduction 131

4.2. State of the art 135

4.3. General description of the proposed architecture 139

4.3.1. Network organization mechanisms for areas completely covered by LTE 139

4.3.2. Network organization mechanisms for areas that are not completely covered by LTE 140

4.3.3. Information collection application: LTE4V2X-C 141

4.3.4. Information dissemination application: LTE4V2X-D 141

4.4. Detailed description of the LTE4V2X-C protocol 141

4.4.1. Initialization phase 143

4.4.2. Maintenance 145

4.4.3. Extension for the areas not covered by the LTE 149

4.5. A detailed description of the LTE4V2X-D protocol 151

4.6. Performance evaluation 153

4.6.1. Hypotheses 153

4.6.2. The results of the simulation and their analysis 156

4.6.3. Analysis of the impact of the handover 164

4.7. Conclusion 168

4.8. Bibliography 169

Chapter 5. Gateway Selection Algorithms in Vehicular Networks 171
Ghayet e mouna ZHIOUA, Houda LABIOD, Nabil TABBANE and Sami TABBANE

5.1. Introduction 171

5.2. Clustering and gateway selection in VANET networks 173

5.2.1. Clustering in VANET networks 173

5.2.2. Gateway selection in a clustered/non-clustered VANET architecture 177

5.2.3. Conclusions 181

5.3. Gateway selection in a clustered VANET-LTE advanced hybrid network 182

5.3.1. Problem statement 182

5.3.2. LTE-advanced standard 183

5.3.3. Proposed algorithm 187

5.3.4. Conclusions 204

5.4. Conclusion 205

5.5. Bibliography 206

Chapter 6. Synthetic Mobility Traces for Vehicular Networking 209
Sandesh UPPOOR, Marco FIORE and Jérôme HÄRRI

6.1. Introduction 209

6.2. Generation process 212

6.2.1. Road topology database 212

6.2.2. Microscopic traffic flow description 215

6.2.3. Macroscopic road traffic description 218

6.3. Mobility simulators 220

6.3.1. Microscopic traffic simulators 220

6.3.2. Mesoscopic traffic simulators 221

6.3.3. Macroscopic traffic simulators 222

6.3.4. Interactions between simulators 223

6.4. Mobility traces 226

6.4.1. Perception 227

6.4.2. Small-scale measurements 230

6.4.3. Road traffic imagery 231

6.4.4. Roadside detectors 232

6.4.5. Sociodemographic surveys 233

6.4.6. Discussion 237

6.5. Bibliography 240

Chapter 7. Traffic Signal Control Systems and Car-to-Car Communications 247
Mounir BOUSSEDJRA, Nitin MASLEKAR, Joseph MOUZNA and Houda LABIOD

7.1. Introduction 247

7.2. Classification of traffic signal control systems 249

7.2.1. Static systems 250

7.2.2. Dynamic systems 251

7.3. Traffic signal control and car-to-car communication 269

7.4. Summary and conclusion 269

7.5. Bibliography 273

List of Authors 279

Index 281

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