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Design of Microwave Active Devices

ISBN: 978-1-84821-630-3
400 pages
May 2014, Wiley-ISTE
Design of Microwave Active Devices (1848216300) cover image

Description

This book presents methods for the design of the main microwave active devices.

The first chapter focuses on amplifiers working in the linear mode. The authors present the problems surrounding narrowband and wideband impedance matching, stability, polarization and the noise factor, as well as specific topologies such as the distributed amplifier and the differential amplifier.

Chapter 2 concerns the power amplifier operation. Specific aspects on efficiency, impedance matching and class of operation are presented, as well as the main methods of linearization and efficiency improvement.

Frequency transposition is the subject of Chapter 3. The author presents the operating principle as well as the different topologies using transistors and diodes.

Chapter 4 is dedicated to the operation of fixed frequency and tunable oscillators such as the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and the yttrium iron garnet (YIG).

The final chapter presents the main control functions, i.e. attenuators, phase shifters and switches.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Amplification in Linear Mode 1
Jean-Luc GAUTIER and Sébastien QUINTANEL

1.1. Principles of microwave amplification 1

1.1.1. Characteristics of an amplifier in linear mode 2

1.1.2. Review on active two-port networks in linear mode 5

1.1.3. Basic structure of an amplifier 10

1.1.4. Reciprocal and lossless impedance matching networks 11

1.1.5. Design methodology 12

1.2. Narrowband amplifiers with maximum gain 13

1.2.1. Transistor test 13

1.2.2. Stabilization circuits 15

1.2.3. Polarization circuits 18

1.2.4. Polarization circuits and stability 21

1.2.5. Impedance matching circuits 23

1.2.6. The multistage amplifier: inter-stage matching 27

1.2.7. Design example 28

1.3. Low-noise narrowband amplifier 29

1.3.1. Review of the noise characteristics of a transistor 29

1.3.2. Minimum noise factor amplifier 31

1.3.3. Noise factor–gain matching compromise 33

1.3.4. Multistage amplifier and noise factor 35

1.3.5. Balanced low-noise amplifier 36

1.4. Specific configurations for transistors 39

1.4.1. Common-grid and common-drain configurations 40

1.4.2. Cascade and cascode configurations 43

1.5. Wideband amplification 48

1.5.1. Reactive wideband matching 49

1.5.2. Selective mismatching 58

1.5.3. Resistive matching 60

1.5.4. Feedback amplifier 67

1.5.5. Active matching amplifier 74

1.5.6. Distributed amplifier 76

1.6. Differential amplifier 82

1.6.1. Four-port network with a plane of symmetry 83

1.6.2. Differential amplifier 84

1.7. Bibliography 89

Chapter 2. Power Amplification 93
Jean-Luc GAUTIER, Myriam ARIAUDO and Cédric DUPERRIER

2.1. Characteristics of power amplifiers 93

2.1.1. Gain, output power and efficiency 94

2.1.2. Gain compression 95

2.1.3. AM/AM and AM/PM conversion 98

2.1.4. Third-order intermodulation 98

2.1.5. Adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and noise power ratio (NPR) 103

2.2. Analysis of the operation of a power amplifier 107

2.2.1. Principle of operation 107

2.2.2. Dynamic load line 109

2.2.3. Conditions for optimum power 111

2.2.4. Small-signal and large-signal matching 114

2.2.5. Determination of optimal load conditions 116

2.3. Classes of operation 123

2.3.1. Sinusoidal classes 123

2.3.2. High-efficiency classes F and F inverse 134

2.3.3. D and E commutation classes 137

2.4. Architectures of power amplifiers 140

2.4.1. Cascade structure 140

2.4.2. Combination of power 141

2.4.3. Tree structure 142

2.5. Design example of an amplifier in class B 144

2.6. Linearization and efficiency improvement 148

2.6.1. Power amplification and non-constant envelope signals 148

2.6.2. Linearization and efficiency improvement techniques 150

2.7. Bibliography 156

Chapter 3. Frequency Transposition 159
Jean-Luc GAUTIER

3.1. Operating principles 159

3.1.1. Up-converter and down-converter mixers 160

3.1.2. Using a nonlinear element 163

3.1.3. Parametric operation and pump signal 164

3.1.4. Conversion matrix 166

3.2. Mixer characteristics 168

3.2.1. Conversion gain 168

3.2.2. Gain compression and intermodulation 169

3.2.3. Port isolation 174

3.2.4. Noise factors 175

3.3. Simple mixer operation 180

3.3.1. Parasitic frequencies 180

3.3.2. Filtering issues 182

3.4. Balanced mixer topologies 183

3.4.1. Single-balanced mixers 183

3.4.2. Double-balanced mixer 187

3.4.3. Image frequency rejection mixers 189

3.4.4. SSB mixer 192

3.5. Topology of passive and active mixers 193

3.5.1. Passive mixers 194

3.5.2. Active mixers 206

3.6. Frequency multipliers 212

3.7. Bibliography 213

Chapter 4. Oscillators 217
Jean-Luc GAUTIER

4.1. Operating principles 217

4.1.1. Two-port network feedback-type oscillators 218

4.1.2. Negative-resistance one-port network-type oscillators 222

4.2. Analysis of one-port circuit-type oscillators 225

4.2.1. Van Der Pol oscillator 225

4.2.2. Quasi-static analysis of a one-port circuit-type oscillator 233

4.2.3. Oscillation stability 239

4.2.4. Oscillator synchronization 243

4.2.5. Noise oscillator analysis 248

4.3. Oscillator characteristics 254

4.3.1. Output power and efficiency 255

4.3.2. Oscillation frequency and tuning 256

4.3.3. External quality factor 256

4.3.4. Spectral purity and harmonic distortion 256

4.3.5. Pulling and pushing factors 257

4.3.6. Frequency stability 257

4.3.7. Amplitude and phase-modulation noise 258

4.4. Impedance with a negative resistive component 260

4.4.1. Analytical determination 261

4.4.2. Graphical determination: mapping 263

4.4.3. Worked example of negative real part impedance determination 266

4.5. Fixed-frequency oscillators 270

4.5.1. Oscillator with localized or distributed-parameter circuit 271

4.5.2. Dielectric-resonator oscillator 272

4.6. Electronically tunable oscillators 279

4.6.1. Limitations of the negative real part component 279

4.6.2. Varactor-diode-tuned oscillators (VCO) 281

4.6.3. YIG-resonator tuned oscillators 286

4.7. Bibliography 290

Chapter 5. Control Functions 293
Jean-Luc GAUTIER

5.1. Semiconductor components for control functions 293

5.1.1. Varactor diode 293

5.1.2. PIN diode 294

5.1.3. Cold transistor 295

5.2. Variable attenuators 296

5.2.1. Basic cell 297

5.2.2. Matched attenuation cells 298

5.3. Variable phase shifters 301

5.3.1. Reflection phase shifters 301

5.3.2. Transmission phase shifters 302

5.3.3. Combination vector phase shifters 305

5.4. Switches 306

5.4.1. Single-pole single-throw (SPST) switch 306

5.4.2. Single-pole multiple-throw (SPnT) switch 312

5.5. Bibliography 313

Appendix 1. Lossless Two-Port Network: Mismatching 315

Appendix 2. Noise in a Balanced Amplifier 317

Appendix 3. Specific Topologies with Transistors 323

Appendix 4. Wideband Impedance Matching: Reactive Two-Port Networks 331

Appendix 5. Wideband Impedance Matching: Dissipative Two-Port Networks 341

Appendix 6. Wideband Amplification: Parallel Resistive Feedback 349

Appendix 7. Graphical Method 353

Appendix 8. Distributed Amplifier 359

Appendix 9. Differential Amplifier 369

Appendix 10. Third-order Intermodulation 373

List of Authors 377

Index 379

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