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Decision-Making and the Information System

ISBN: 978-1-84821-753-9
208 pages
August 2015, Wiley-ISTE
Decision-Making and the Information System (1848217536) cover image

Description

The purpose of this book is to question the relationships involved in decision making and the systems designed to support it: decision support systems (DSS). The focus is on how these systems are engineered; to stop and think about the questions to be asked throughout the engineering process and, in particular, about the impact designers’ choices have on these systems. 

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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ix

CHAPTER 1. DECISION-MAKING 1

1.1. Normative theory versus engineering theory 3

1.2. The decision process 5

1.2.1. Simon’s IDC model 5

1.2.2. Supplementing the IDC model 8

1.2.3. Structuring decisions 10

1.2.4. Defined problems (tame) and undefined problems (wicked) 10

1.2.5. Group decision-making 12

1.3. Decision-making within the organization 13

1.3.1. Managing a complex system 13

1.3.2. The main components of the management system 15

1.3.3. Indicator, index and information useful to the decision maker 20

1.3.4. Typology of objectives and indicators 22

1.3.5. Support to define the global management system or support for action decisions? 24

1.3.6. Management levels 27

1.3.7. Toward decision support for the three management levels 30

1.3.8. Standardizing decisions 31

1.3.9. Taking into account the dynamic of organizations and their environment 32

1.4. Changes to management within organizations 33

1.4.1. Connections with the environment 33

1.4.2. Boundaries 34

1.4.3. Innovation 36

1.4.4. Requirements linked to information systems 36

1.4.5. Changes to public institutions: territorial authorities 39

CHAPTER 2. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS 43

2.1. DSS: definitions and typologies 44

2.1.1. Definitions 44

2.1.2. Standard components of a decision support system 47

2.1.3. Typologies of decision support systems 48

2.1.4. A brief history of research in the domain 51

2.1.5. Business intelligence 53

2.1.6. A specific type of decision support tool: Big Data 55

2.1.7. Criticisms leveled at business intelligence 62

2.2. DSS engineering 62

2.2.1. The components of a design method for IT systems or DSS 63

2.2.2. Requirements engineering (not specific to DSS) 69

2.2.3. Requirements engineering for DSS 75

CHAPTER 3. THE INFLUENCE OF DSS ON DECISION-MAKING AND ASSOCIATED RISKS 89

3.1. Factors influencing decision-making 90

3.1.1. The three types of problem-solving error 92

3.1.2. The role of perspectives in problem formulation 93

3.1.3. Mental representations, worldviews and beliefs 94

3.1.4. The influence of management technologies 97

3.1.5. IS: performative systems 98

3.1.6. Indicators: an extreme case of reduced complexity 99

3.1.7. IT: a technology of representations 101

3.1.8. DSS: support and/or constraint? 103

3.1.9. Big Data: a massive “effect of reality” 104

3.1.10. DSS as systems of influence: persuasive technologies 105

3.1.11. Conclusion 108

3.2. Risks linked to the use of DSS in decision-making 108

3.2.1. Inaccuracies in the results produced 109

3.2.2. Confusing the map and the territory 112

3.2.3. The risk of losing diversity 114

3.2.4. Toward more and more predictivity? 117

3.2.5. Exacerbated risks in the case of decisions defining the management system 123

CHAPTER 4. ELEMENTS FOR ETHICAL DSS DESIGN 127

4.1. Computer ethics 129

4.1.1. A brief history 129

4.1.2. Ethical theories 131

4.1.3. The values of computer ethics 134

4.1.4. Ethics in IT system development 136

4.2. Ethics in DSS development 138

4.2.1. A brief history/state-of-the-art 138

4.2.2. A reminder of the issues 144

4.2.3. Design phases to be favored 147

4.2.4. Conclusion 149

4.3. Our contribution to an engineering of responsibility 149

4.3.1. The doxai, principles and norms (DPN) model 150

4.3.2. Applying the DPN model for evaluation 154

GENERAL CONCLUSION 161

BIBLIOGRAPHY 167

INDEX 187

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