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Brain-Computer Interfaces 2: Technology and Applications

Maureen Clerc (Editor), Laurent Bougrain (Editor), Fabien Lotte (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-84821-963-2
364 pages
August 2016, Wiley-ISTE
Brain-Computer Interfaces 2: Technology and Applications (1848219636) cover image

Description

Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) are devices which measure brain activity and translate it into messages or commands, thereby opening up many possibilities for investigation and application. This book provides keys for understanding and designing these multi-disciplinary interfaces, which require many fields of expertise such as neuroscience, statistics, informatics and psychology.

This second volume, Technology and Applications, is focused on the field of BCI from the perspective of its end users, such as those with disabilities to practitioners. Covering clinical applications and the field of video games, the book then goes on to explore user needs which drive the design and development of BCI. The software used for their design, primarily OpenViBE, is explained step by step, before a discussion on the use of BCI from ethical, philosophical and social perspectives.

The basic notions developed in this reference book are intended to be accessible to all readers interested in BCI, whatever their background. More advanced material is also offered, for readers who want to expand their knowledge in disciplinary fields underlying BCI.

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Table of Contents

Foreword  xv
José DEL R. MILLÁN

Introduction  xvii
Maureen CLERC, Laurent BOUGRAIN and Fabien LOTTE

Part 1. Fields of Application 1

Chapter 1. Brain–Computer Interfaces in Disorders of Consciousness  3
Jérémie MATTOUT, Jacques LUAUTÉ, Julien JUNG and Dominique MORLET

1.1. Introduction  3

1.2. Altered states of consciousness: etiologies and clinical features  4

1.3. Functional assessment of patients with altered states of consciousness (passive paradigms)  6

1.4. Advanced approaches to assessing consciousness (active paradigms)  12

1.5. Toward the real-time use of functional markers 15

1.6. Conclusion and future outlook  19

1.7. Bibliography  21

Chapter 2. Medical Applications: Neuroprostheses and Neurorehabilitation 29
Laurent BOUGRAIN

2.1. Motor deficiencies 30

2.2. Compensating for motor deficiency 32

2.3. Conclusions  39

2.4. Bibliography  39

Chapter 3. Medical Applications of BCIs for Patient Communication 43
François CABESTAING and Louis MAYAUD

3.1. Introduction  43

3.2. Reactive interfaces for communication 49

3.3. Active interfaces for communication  53

3.4. Conclusions  59

3.5. Bibliography  60

Chapter 4. BrainTV: Revealing the Neural Bases of Human Cognition in Real Time 65
Jean-Philippe LACHAUX

4.1. Introduction and motivation 65

4.2. Toward first person data accounting 66

4.3. Bringing subjective and objective data into the same space: conscious experience of the subject  69

4.4. Technical aspects: the contribution of brain–computer interfaces 70

4.5. The BrainTV system and its applications  75

4.6. BrainTV limitations  81

4.7. Extension to other types of recordings  82

4.8. Conclusions  82

4.9. Bibliography 83

Chapter 5. BCIs and Video Games: State of the Art with the OpenViBE2 Project 85
Anatole LÉCUYER

5.1. Introduction  85

5.2. Video game prototypes controlled by BCI 88

5.3. Industrial prototypes: the potential for very different kinds of games  93

5.4. Discussion 96

5.5. Conclusion 98

5.6. Bibliography  98

Part 2. Practical Aspects of BCI Implementation  101

Chapter 6. Analysis of Patient Need for Brain–Computer Interfaces 103
Louis MAYAUD, Salvador CABANILLES and Eric AZABOU

6.1. Introduction  103

6.2. Types of users 108

6.3. Interpretation of needs in BCI usage contexts  113

6.4. Conclusions  117

6.5. Bibliography  119

Chapter 7. Sensors: Theory and Innovation 123
Jean-Michel BADIER, Thomas LONJARET and Pierre LELEUX

7.1. EEG electrodes 125

7.2. Invasive recording 128

7.3. Latest generation sensors 130

7.4. Magnetoencephalography  137

7.5. Conclusions  139

7.6. Bibliography  140

Chapter 8. Technical Requirements for High-quality EEG Acquisition 143
Emmanuel MABY

8.1. Electrodes 144

8.2. Montages . 145

8.3. Amplifiers 147

8.4. Analog filters  152

8.5. Analog-to-digital conversion 152

8.6. Event synchronization with the EEG  155

8.7. Conclusions  159

8.8. Bibliography  160

Chapter 9. Practical Guide to Performing an EEG Experiment  163
Emmanuel MABY

9.1. Study planning 163

9.2. Equipment 166

9.3. Experiment procedure 170

9.4. Bibliography  177

Part 3 . Step by Step Guide to BCI Design with OpenViBE 179

Chapter 10. OpenViBE and Other BCI Software Platforms 181
Jussi LINDGREN and Anatole LECUYER

10.1. Introduction  181

10.2. Using BCI for control  183

10.3. BCI processing stages  184

10.4. Exploring BCI  187

10.5. Comparison of platforms  189

10.6. Choosing a platform 195

10.7. Conclusion  196

10.8. Bibliography 197

Chapter 11. Illustration of Electrophysiological Phenomena with OpenViBE  199
Fabien LOTTE and Alison CELLARD

11.1. Visualization of raw EEG signals and artifacts  200

11.2. Visualization of alpha oscillations 201

11.3. Visualization of the beta rebound  203

11.4. Visualization of the SSVEP 206

11.5. Conclusions  208

11.6. Bibliography 209

Chapter 12. Classification of Brain Signals with OpenViBE 211
Laurent BOUGRAIN and Guillaume SERRIÈRE

12.1. Introduction  211

12.2. Classification 212

12.3. Evaluation 216

12.4. Conclusions  224

12.5. Bibliography 224

Chapter 13. OpenViBE Illustration of a P300 Virtual Keyboard  227
Nathanaël FOY, Théodore PAPADOPOULO and Maureen CLERC

13.1. Target/non-target classification 228

13.2. Illustration of a P300 virtual keyboard 235

13.3. Bibliography 240

Chapter 14. Recreational Applications of OpenViBE: Brain Invaders and Use-the-Force 241
Anton ANDREEV, Alexandre BARACHANT, Fabien LOTTE and Marco CONGEDO

14.1. Brain Invaders  241

14.2. Implementation  248

14.3. Use-The-Force!  251

14.4. Conclusions  256

14.5. Bibliography 257

Part 4. Societal Challenges and Perspectives  259

Chapter 15. Ethical Reflections on Brain–Computer Interfaces 261
Florent BOCQUELET, Gaëlle PIRET, Nicolas AUMONIER and Blaise YVERT

15.1. Introduction  262

15.2. The animal  264

15.3. Human beings  267

15.4. The human species  274

15.5. Conclusions  279

15.6. Bibliography 281

Chapter 16. Acceptance of Brain–machine Hybrids: How is Their Brain Perceived In Vivo?  289
Bernard ANDRIEU

16.1. Ethical problem  289

16.2. The method  291

16.3. Ethics of experimentation: Matthew Nagle, the first patient  293

16.4. Body language in performance 296

16.5. Ethics of autonomous (re)socialization 297

16.6. Conclusions . 303

16.7. Bibliography 304

16.8. Appendix (verbatim video retranscriptions)  304

Chapter 17. Conclusion and Perspectives  311
Maureen CLERC, Laurent BOUGRAIN and Fabien LOTTE

17.1. Introduction  311

17.2. Reinforcing the scientific basis of BCIs  314

17.3. Using BCI in practice  316

17.4. Opening up BCI technologies to new applications and fields 318

17.5. Concern about ethical issues  321

17.6. Conclusions  321

17.7. Bibliography 322

List of Authors  325

Index  329

Contents of Volume 1 333

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Author Information

Maureen Clerc is Senior Researcher at Inria Sophia Antipolis, France.

Laurent Bougrain is Associate Professor at the University of Lorraine, France.

Fabien Lotte is Junior Researcher at Inria Bordeaux, France. aureen Clerc is Senior Researcher at Inria Sophia Antipolis, France.

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