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Innovation Engineering: The Power of Intangible Networks

Patrick Corsi (Editor), Hervé Christofol (Editor), Simon Richir (Editor), Henri Samier (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-905209-55-2
400 pages
October 2006, Wiley-ISTE
Innovation Engineering: The Power of Intangible Networks (190520955X) cover image
This title explores the issue of innovation engineering, a feature that is essential to the continuation of growth and development in the commercial world. Discussion is divided into three parts: Part I covers the historical basis of innovation, noting that diversity rests upon a duality between concepts in theory and applications put into practice, as well as discussing how innovation has resulted from the interaction of numerous factors, be they societal, human, managerial, organization or technological. Part II focuses on practical applications – the technologies, tools and methods employed in putting theoretical innovation into practice – while Part III looks at what factors underpin success, discussing the social and psychological aspects involved in successful innovation engineering. Consideration is also given to recent developments and systems which will assist in ensuring the continuation of this process in the future.
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PART 1. The Global Innovation World: Which Visions Ahead? 1

Chapter 1. Inventing the Future 3
Fabienne GOUX-BAUDIMENT and Christopher B. JONES

1.1. Innovation 4

1.1.1. How should innovation be designed? 4

1.1.2. Profile of the innovator 6

1.2. Futures thinking 8

1.2.1. Futures thinking: a tool to build the future 8

1.2.2. Profile of the futurist 10

1.3. Change and network 12

1.3.1. When innovation feeds futures thinking: the study of change 12

1.3.2. When futures thinking helps innovation: opening the road to change 17

Chapter 2. Innovation Management: How to Change the Future 25
André-Yves PORTNOFF

2.1. The innovation, beyond technique 25

2.1.1. The fiction of the linear model 25

2.1.2. Technically and societally viable 26

2.1.3. Technical and societal futuribles 27

2.2. Innovations in an era of digital networks 28

2.2.1. More and more power 28

2.2.2. Cost of organizational transaction and innovation 29

2.3. Shortsightedness against innovation 30

2.3.1. Credibility of the message and the messenger? 30

2.3.2. Outdated evidences 30

2.3.3. A too narrow vision 31

2.3.4. False proofs 31

2.3.5. Significances ignored 32

2.3.6. Under-estimation of evolution potential 33

2.3.7. Dare to imagine breaks 33

2.3.8. Blinding arrogance 34

2.3.9. “The situation is under control” 35

2.4. Innovation as a process of creation of values 36

2.4.1. Sell the training with the product 36

2.4.2. Network, creator of value 37

2.5. Conclusion 38

Chapter 3. From Knowledge to Business: Virtual Encounters Propagate Innovation 41
Patrick CORSI and Barnabas TAKÁCS

3.1. Where information society mixes up our linear and local schemes 42

3.2. Knowledge on the move through networks: examples of innovation processes 44

3.3. Three laws underpinning technological evolution 46

3.4. How do virtual encounters ride the technology lifecycle curve? 47

3.5. The virtual human interface (VHI) brings a new meaning to communication 49

3.6. The emotional modulation opens up new business spaces 52

3.7. The requirements for a VHI 52

3.8. Bridging the digital divide: should not we replace the ill-fated WIMP interface? 54

Chapter 4. Value Management’s Creative-Destruction via Digitalized Innovation: The Winning Plan 57
Jean MICHEL and Roy WOODHEAD

4.1. Introduction 57

4.2. The straightjacket of selling training and certification agenda 58

4.3. What exactly does innovation mean? 59

4.4. Value management: a long history 61

4.5. Definitions and rigidity 67

4.6. Potential of valorique in relation to the innovation 70

4.6.1. Problem scanning and framing: “inquiry and questioning” 70

4.6.2. A “systemic” step with mobilization-confrontation from multiple points of view 71

4.6.3. A reference frame that defines “functional need” based on function analysis 72

4.6.4. Cost intelligence and focusing on the economy of the means 73

4.6.5. The mobilization of information, knowledge and competences 74

4.6.6. Project management and the rigor of VA 75

4.6.7. The explicit or implicit recourse to the practices and techniques that enable creativity 75

4.7. Digital technology, networking, and an ability to innovate differently 76

4.7.1. The “valorique” culture 77

4.7.2. The digital revolution 78

4.7.3. Two innovating processes of different natures 79

4.7.4. The digital arrival of “valorique” 80

4.8. VM and digital networks. 81

Chapter 5. Research, Innovation and Technological Development 85
Mélissa SAADOUN and Lin YANNING

5.1. Introduction 85

5.1.1. Innovation is about taking risks and managing change 85

5.1.2. The importance of innovation in the economy 86

5.2. Science, technology and innovation: building regional capacities 86

5.2.1. Promoting business opportunities in science and technology 87

5.2.2. Promoting infrastructure development as a technology learning process 87

5.2.3. Expanding access to science and technology education and research 88

5.2.4. Improving science and technology advice 88

5.3. Technology and global science for a better development 88

5.3.1. Structural funds to support research and innovation 90

5.3.2. Technology in today’s global setting 90

5.3.3. Technological capabilities 91

5.3.4. Infrastructure and technological innovation 94

5.3.5. Research facilities as infrastructure 95

5.3.6. Mobilizing the engineering profession 95

5.4. Innovation and economic advance 96

5.4.1. Platform technologies with wide applicability 97

5.4.2. Information and communication technology 97

5.4.3. The network revolution 98

5.5. Investing in science, technology and education 99

5.5.1. New roles for universities 99

5.5.2. The role of ICT in education 101

5.5.3. The role of universities in innovation 102

5.6. Conclusion 103

Chapter 6. Sustainable Innovation through Community Based Collaborative Environments 105
Marc PALLOT and Kul PAWAR

6.1. Introduction 105

6.2. Components of collaboration 106

6.2.1. Different forms of collaboration 106

6.2.2. Different methods of work 108

6.2.3. Mobility 109

6.2.4. Teleworking (distance or remote working) 110

6.3. A systematic approach to collaboration 111

6.4. The collaborative enterprise 112

6.5. The network of innovative companies 113

6.5.1. Mixed marketing 113

6.5.2. Strategic coordination of partner networks 114

6.5.3. Financing innovation within a network 114

6.5.4. Company networks as incubators of innovation 114

6.5.5. The infrastructure of collaboration 114

6.6. Concurrent engineering 115

6.7. Adaptation of the collaboration process 117

6.8. Management of a collaborative project 118

6.9. Conclusions 121

Chapter 7. New Spaces for Innovation, New Challenges 123
Hiroshi MIZUTA, Victor SANDOVAL and Henri SAMIER

7.1. Introduction 123

7.2. Internet waves 124

7.2.1. P2P technology 127

7.2.2. Grid computing technology 128

7.2.3. Grid computing in Japan 131

7.3. Strategies of innovation 133

7.4. Hyperspace: new dimension of innovation 135

7.4.1. Hyperspace laws 136

7.4.2. Hypertime or space time 138

7.4.3. Distance and hyperdistance 140

7.5. Cyberenergy and cyberentropy 141

7.6. Conclusions143

PART 2. Tooling Innovation: Which Methods to Play and How? 145

Chapter 8. Knowledge Management for Innovation 147
Marc de FOUCHÉCOUR

8.1. Introduction 147

8.1.1. Studies 147

8.1.2. Objectives and plan 149

8.2. Innovation and knowledge 150

8.2.1. Some dualities 151

8.2.2. Innovation and knowledge 152

8.3. Reports 153

8.3.1. The reversal of the pyramid 153

8.3.2. Complex – collective 153

8.3.3. The paradox of time: compression and space 154

8.3.4. Stakeholder-oriented management 154

8.3.5. Matrix organization 154

8.3.6. Methods, tools and incantations 154

8.4. Knowledge: some “organizers” 155

8.4.1. The DIK model (Data-Information-Knowledge): knowledge as an object 156

8.4.2. The creative spiral and the Ba 158

8.4.3. Knowledge as a process 160

8.4.4. Cycles of innovation and of knowledge 161

8.5. Cultures, methods and tools 166

8.5.1. Where do we start? 166

8.5.2. Methods and tools for collective knowledge 167

8.5.3. Induced effects and combinations 171

8.6. Key factors 172

8.6.1. To share or not to share? 172

8.6.2. Learning or teaching 173

8.6.3. Stress and confidence 173

8.7. Conclusions and openings 173

Chapter 9. Integration of Stylistics and Uses: Trends in the Innovation Process 175
Carole BOUCHARD, Hervé CHRISTOFOL and Dokshin LIM

9.1. Theories and concepts of stylistic innovation. 176

9.1.1. The universe of exchanges and influences 176

9.1.2. Trends in design 176

9.1.3. The stylistic attributes 177

9.1.4. Usage attributes 178

9.1.5. Stylistic tendencies and use179

9.1.6. Reasoning in the design professions and analogy in particular 179

9.1.7. Human values and product value 181

9.2. Methods and tools of stylistic innovation 182

9.2.1. The universe of exchange to the universe of influences 182

9.2.2. The analysis of iconic contents 183

9.2.3. Modeling of the analysis process of the tendencies of a universe of exchange 185

9.2.4. The harmonies of attributes 187

9.2.5. The chain of value/function/attribute 188

9.3. The step of stylistic monitoring and its application in designing the automobile trends panel 190

9.3.1. The construction of specifications and requirements 190

9.3.2. The determination of the influential universes 191

9.3.3 the analysis of the tendencies and their descriptions 193

9.3.4. The integration of tendencies in design of product 193

9.4. Conclusion 195

Chapter 10. Virtual Reality Technologies for Innovation 197
Simon RICHIR, Patrick CORSI and Albert “Skip” RIZZO

10.1. Introduction 197

10.2. The digital chain of conceptualization in the enterprise 198

10.3. Work on virtual project platforms 200

10.4. Virtualization of professions 202

10.5. What Virtual environments really mean 206

10.5.1. Today’s challenges 206

10.5.2. Perspectives 208

10.6. The challenge ahead 211

Chapter 11. TRIZ: A New Way of Innovation 213
Darrell MANN and Pascal CRUBLEAU

11.1. Introduction 213

11.1.1. Product designing methods 213

11.1.2. An important stage 214

11.2. A deterministic vision of future technologies 215

11.2.1. General introduction 215

11.2.2. Introductory ideas 217

11.2.3. Postulates of TRIZ 218

11.3. Conclusion 221

Chapter 12. C4 Innovation Method: A Method for Designing Innovations 223
Olaf MAXANT, Gérald PIAT and Benoît ROUSSEL

12.1. Introduction 223

12.2. The approach of innovation in the commercial domain of EDF R&D 225

12.3. The C4 method 227

12.3.1. Overview of the method 227

12.3.2. Phase 1: comprehension of demand 227

12.3.3. Phase 2: creation 228

12.3.4. Phase 3: contextualization 229

12.3.5. Phase 4: confrontation 231

12.3.6. Modeling of the process 231

12.4. Diverse experimentations of the process 232

12.4.1. The “New Offers” project: contribution of the dynamic concept in comparison to the static concept 232

12.4.2. Collaboration with the Studio Créatif of France Télécom: towards an evaluation of service 234

12.5. Some new tools to facilitate the collaboration and the contextualization; towards an instrumentation of the process: “IdéoFil” and “StoryoFil” 235

12.5.1. IdéoFil 236

12.5.2. StoryoFil 238

12.6. Conclusions 238

Chapter 13. Creativity World 239
Michel SINTES

13.1. Introduction 239

13.2. Reflections on creativity 239

13.3. A human concept 240

13.3.1. Idea/intention 241

13.3.2. Thought/objective 242

13.3.3. The emotional aspect 242

13.3.4. Behavior 243

13.3.5. Result 244

13.3.6. Mini-cycle of creativity 245

13.3.7. The scale of values 246

13.4. The state to being one with the environment 248

13.5. The age of networks 250

PART 3. Innovation Management: Which Factors Underpin Success? 251

Chapter 14. Psychology of Innovation and Change Factors 253
Laurent DUKAN

14.1. Introduction 253

14.2. Innovation and research 255

14.3. Change in mentality 255

14.4. The principal cultural indicators for innovation 256

14.4.1. Fear and taking risks 256

14.4.2. Conformity and originality 257

14.4.3. The unknown and the future 257

14.4.4. Complexity 259

14.4.5. Mechanistic, systemic and complex thought 260

14.4.6. Communication and recognition 262

14.4.7. Failure and success 264

14.5. Conclusion 265

Chapter 15. Intellectual Property for Networks and Software 267
Sylvain ALLANO

15.1. Introduction 267

15.2. State of the problems and the protagonists 268

15.3. The main “nodes” in intellectual property amidst the networks operated in the context of innovation 268

15.4. Intellectual property rights applicable to the context of networks 270

15.5. Copyright “software” against networks 270

15.5.1. The main statutory copyright “software” 270

15.5.2. Intellectual property of the software circulating in the network 271

15.5.3. Intellectual property for software involving networks 272

15.5.4. Software copyright limitations 272

15.5.5. Software copyright 273

15.6. Free software 273

15.7. Protection through patents for communication software and networks 274

15.8. Actors in the networks and intellectual property 275

15.8.1. Intellectual property of databases 275

15.8.2. Expert systems and tools of artificial intelligence 276

15.8.3. Computer generated creations 276

15.9. Digital Rights Management (DRM) 276

15.10. When the networks themselves become tools for intellectual property 277

15.11. Enforcing intellectual property rights on the network scale 277

15.12. Conclusion: intellectual property and the networks: an advantage for innovation 278

Chapter 16. Innovation Scoreboard for Core Competencies Evaluation 279
Nathalie SAMIER

16.1. Introduction 279

16.2. Locations of the immaterial capital 280

16.2.1. Contribution of the theories of resources 280

16.2.2. The immaterial capital: intangible investment and intangible assets 281

16.3. Competences to innovate 282

16.3.1. Competences resulting from an internal interaction 283

16.3.2. Competences resulting from an external interaction 283

16.4. The key to the creation of knowledge 284

16.4.1. Modes of conversion of knowledge 285

16.4.2. The spiral of knowledge 286

16.5. The valorization of innovation in terms of the scoreboard 287

16.5.1. The value of IC conceived by SKANDIA 287

16.5.2. The SKANDIA navigator 288

16.5.3. The adaptations of SKANDIA model 290

16.6. Conclusion 293

Chaptrer 17. Financing Innovation 295
Pascale BRENET

17.1. Needs for financing associated with innovation 295

17.1.1. Time, risk and cost of innovation 296

17.1.2. The financial lifecycle of innovation 298

17.1.3. The financial fragility of innovating small companies 301

17.2. Adaptation of resources to innovation: “patient” and “loseable” money 301

17.2.1. Arbitration between debt and capital 302

17.2.2. A pool of resources 304

17.3. The financial system of innovation 306

17.3.1. Capital-investment 306

17.3.2. Markets of growing stocks 310

17.3.3. Public financing of innovation 311

17.4. Conclusion 312

Chapter 18. Innovation on the Web 315
François DRUEL

18.1. Introduction 315

18.2. Distribution model: Open Source and software patents 317

18.2.1. The clash of the titans 317

18.2.2. Publication vs. patents: innovation vs. industry? 319

18.3. An enormous base of information 320

18.4. Marketing and innovation on the Web 322

18.4.1. A leverage 322

18.4.2. A deep impression 323

18.4.3. New reflexes 324

18.5. A fantastic tool for sharing 325

18.5.1. If you don’t know, ask, and if you know, share! 325

18.5.2. Business-to-business: Eldorado or damp squib? 326

18.6. E-commerce: a soufflé fallen flat? 327

18.6.1. Between the hare and the tortoise 328

18.6.2. Incorrect good ideas for reel disadvantages 330

18.7. Conclusion 331

Chapter 19. Virtual Decision Support System for Innovation 333
Emmanuel CHÉNÉ

19.1. Introduction 333

19.2. From the management of innovation to the management of design 334

19.3. Intermediary virtual representations in the industrial context and transmissible via the Internet 337

19.3.1. From VIR in fixed 2D to VIR in interactive 3D via the Internet 337

19.3.2. Characterization of virtual intermediary representations in the industrial context and its transmission via Internet 339

19.4. Developing a decision-making aid with joint analysis software 340

19.4.1. Software tools for joint analysis 341

19.5. Implementation of the software in SME of packaging creation 342

19.5.1. Choice of designs and specifications 343

19.5.2. Collection of data 344

19.5.3. Calculation of uses 345

19.6. Analysis of contributions of VIR with joint analysis in designing 346

19.6.1. Cognitive limitations 347

19.6.2. Limitations in terms of management of decision-making aids 348

19.7. Perspectives 349

19.8. Conclusion 350

Chapter 20. Shapes, Knowledge and Innovation 353
Jean-Pierre MATHIEU, Michel LE RAY and Ilya KIRIA

20.1. Introduction 353

20.1.1. Existence and theory of universal forms: chosen angles and sacred proportions 354

20.2.1. Notion of chosen angles developed by physical sciences and between microscopic and macroscopic scales 355

20.2.2. Golden angles and forms constructed by man 356

20.2.3. Golden angles and other geometric forms 360

20.2.4. Contributions of neurophysiology 361

20.2.5. Contribution of cognitive psychology 363

20.3. The spatial quantification of an object 363

20.4. Overall finding 370

Bibliography 373

List of Authors 397

Index 401

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Patrick Corsi is an international consultant in innovation engineering at KINNSYS, Brussels and an Associate Professor at ISTIA Innovation, Angers University.

Hervé Christofol is an Associate Professor at Angers University.

Simon Richir is a Professor at ENSAM, Angers.

Henri Samier is an Associate Professor at ISTIA Innovation, Angers University.
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