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Trends in Constraint Programming

ISBN: 978-1-905209-97-2
408 pages
May 2007, Wiley-ISTE
Trends in Constraint Programming (1905209975) cover image

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This title brings together the best papers on a range of topics raised at the annual International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming. This conference provides papers and workshops which produce new insights, concepts and results which can then be used by those involved in this area to develop their own work.
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Table of Contents

Introduction 17
Frédéric Benhamou, Narendra Jussien, Barry O’Sullivan

Part I. The Past, Present and Future of Constraint Programming 23
Frédéric Benhamou, Narendra Jussien , Barry O’Sullivan

Chapter 1. Constraint Programming as Declarative Algorithmics 25
Pascal Van Hentenryck

1.1. The CHIP project 26

1.2. The Numerica project 32

1.3. The OPL project 34

1.4. The Comet project 35

1.5. The future of constraint programming 38

Chapter 2. Constraint Programming Tools 41
Laurent Michel, Christian Schulte, Pascal Van Hentenryck

2.1. Introduction 41

2.2. Invited talks 43

2.2.1. The development of an industrial CP tool (Jean-François Puget) 43

2.2.2. System design: taking informed decisions (Christian Schulte) 45

2.3. System presentations 48

2.3.1. ECLiPSe 48

2.3.2. SICStus FD 48

2.3.3. G12 49

2.3.4. DiSolver 49

2.3.5. MINION 50

2.3.6. Choco 50

2.3.7. Gecode 51

2.3.8. Comet 52

2.3.9. JaCoP 53

2.3.10. Borderwijk 54

2.4. Panels 54

2.5. Conclusion 56

2.6. References 57

Chapter 3. The Next 10 Years of Constraint Programming 59
Lucas Bordeaux, Barry O’Sullivan, Pascal Van Hentenryck

3.1. Pedro Barahona 61

3.2. Christian Bessiere 63

3.3. Peter Jeavons 64

3.4. Pedro Meseguer 66

3.5. Gilles Pesant 68

3.6. Francesca Rossi 70

3.7. Thomas Schiex 72

3.8. Christian Schulte 74

3.9. Meinolf Sellmann 75

3.10. Mark Wallace 77

3.11. Toby Walsh 79

3.12. Roland Yap 80

3.13. References 81

Chapter 4. Constraint Propagation and Implementation 83
Marc van Dongen, Christophe Lecoutre

4.1. Filtering algorithms for precedence and dependency constraints (by Roman Barták and Ondøej Èepek) 84

4.1.1. Problem description and related works 84

4.1.2. Filtering rules for precedence and dependency constraints 85

4.1.3. Summary 87

4.2. A study of residual supports in arc consistency (by Christophe Lecoutre and Fred Hemery) 87

4.3. Maintaining singleton arc consistency (by Christophe Lecoutre and Patrick Prosser) 89

4.3.1. Mixed consistency 90

4.3.2. Checking existential-SAC 91

4.3.3. Conclusion 92

4.4. Probabilistic singleton arc consistency (by Deepak Mehta and Marc van Dongen) 93

4.5. Simplification and extension of the SPREAD constraint (by Pierre Schaus, Yves Deville, Pierre Dupont and Jean-Charles Régin) 95

4.5.1. Filtering of π 96

4.5.2. Filtering of X 97

4.5.3. Conclusion 99

4.6. A new filtering algorithm for the graph isomorphism problem (by Sébastien Sorlin and Christine Solnon) 99

4.6.1. A global constraint for the graph isomorphism problem 99

4.6.2. ILL-consistency and ILL-filtering 100

4.6.3. Experimental results 102

4.7. References 103

Chapter 5. On the First SAT/CP Integration Workshop 105
Youssef Hamadi, Lucas Bordeaux

5.1. The technical program 106

5.1.1. The invited talk 106

5.1.2. Contributions related to SMT and solver integration 106

5.1.3. Contributions related to the use of SAT techniques to improve CSP/CP solvers 107

5.1.4. Other contributions 108

5.2. The panel session 109

5.2.1. Are SAT and CP different or similar? 109

5.2.2. Why has SAT succeeded in reducing the tuning issue? 111

5.2.3. How long can the current generation of SAT solvers evolve? 113

5.2.4. Were performance issues correctly addressed by CP? 115

5.2.5. Was CP too ambitious? 118

5.2.6. Do we still need CP? 119

5.3. Summary, future directions and conclusion 121

5.4. References 122

Chapter 6. Constraint-Based Methods for Bioinformatics 125
Alessandro Dal Palù, Agostino Dovier, Franæois Fages, Sebastian Will

6.1. On using temporal logic with constraints to express biological properties of cell processes (by François Fages) 126

6.2. Modeling biological systems in stochastic concurrent constraint programming (by Luca Bortolussi and Alberto Policriti) 129

6.3. Chemera: constraints in protein structural problems (by Pedro Barahona and Ludwig Krippahl) 132

6.4. Exploiting model checking in constraint-based approaches to the protein folding problem (by Elisabetta De Maria, Agostino Dovier, Angelo Montanari and Carla Piazza) 134

6.5. Global constraints for discrete lattices (by Alessandro Dal Palù, Agostino Dovier and Enrico Pontelli) 136

6.6. Counting protein structures by DFS with dynamic decomposition (by Sebastian Will and Martin Mann) 138

6.7. Suffix array and weighted CSPs (by Matthias Zytnicki, Christine Gaspin and Thomas Schiex) 141

6.8. Supertree construction with constraint programming: recent progress and new challenges (by Patrick Prosser) 143

6.9. References 145

Part II. Constraint Modeling and Reformulation 147
Ian Miguel, Steven Prestwich

Chapter 7. Improved Models for Graceful Graphs 151
Jean-François Puget, Barbara Smith

7.1. Introduction 151

7.2. A direct model 152

7.3. The edge-label model 154

7.4. A combined model 156

7.5. Experimental results 157

7.6. Discussion 160

7.7. References 161

Chapter 8. The Automatic Generation of Redundant Representations and Channeling Constraints 163
Bernadette Martínez-Hernández, Alan M. Frisch

8.1. Introduction 163

8.2. Representations 167

8.3. Alternative representations and channels 168

8.3.1. Alternative representations 168

8.3.2. Constraint-wise quasi-representations and channeling constraints 169

8.4. Refinement 174

8.5. Systematic generation of channeling constraints 177

8.6. Producing the best alternative for channeling 179

8.7. Conclusions and future work 180

8.8. References 180

Part III. Symmetry in Constraint Satisfaction Problems 183
Alastair Donaldson, Peter Gregory, Karen Petrie

Chapter 9. GAPLex: Generalized Static Symmetry Breaking 187
Chris Jefferson, Tom Kelsey, Steve Linton, Karen Petrie

9.1. Background and introduction 188

9.1.1. Group theory for CSPs 190

9.1.2. Using GAP to break CSP symmetries 191

9.2. GAPLex 192

9.2.1. Motivation and rationale 192

9.2.2. Motivating example 193

9.2.3. The GAPLex algorithms 193

9.3. Empirical evaluation 196

9.3.1. Combining GAPLex with incomplete static SB methods 197

9.3.2. Combining GAPLex with Puget’s all-different constraints 198

9.4. Conclusions and future work 199

9.5. References 199

Chapter 10. Symmetry Breaking in Subgraph Pattern Matching 203
Stéphane Zampelli, Yves Deville, Pierre Dupont

10.1. Background and definitions 205

10.2. Variable symmetries 207

10.2.1. Detection 207

10.2.2. Breaking 207

10.3. Value symmetries 208

10.3.1. Detection 208

10.3.2. Breaking 208

10.4. Experimental results 209

10.5. Local value symmetries 211

10.5.1. Dynamic target graph 212

10.5.2. Partial dynamic graphs 214

10.6. Conclusion 215

10.7. References 216

Part IV. Interval Analysis, Constraint Propagation and Applications 219
Christophe Jermann, Yahia Lebbah, Djamila Sam-Haroud

Chapter 11. Modeling and Solving of a Radio Antenna Deployment Sup-port Application 223
Michael Heusch

11.1. Two simple models for the application 224

11.1.1. A first finite domain model 224

11.1.2. Shifting the model to mixed domains 225

11.1.3. Description of the search algorithm 225

11.1.4. Analysis of the performance on progressive deployment problems 226

11.2. Introducing the distn constraint 227

11.3. Modeling the application with the distn constraint 228

11.3.1. Revised model of the application 228

11.3.2. Numerical results when solving the LocRLFAP with distn 230

11.3.3. Qualitative analysis of the results 231

11.4. Conclusion 231

11.5. References 232

Chapter 12. Guaranteed Numerical Injectivity Test via Interval Analysis 233
Sébastien Lagrange, Nicolas Delanoue, Luc Jaulin

12.1. Interval analysis 235

12.2. Injectivity 236

12.2.1. Partial injectivity 236

12.2.2. Partial injectivity condition 238

12.3. ITVIA algorithm 241

12.4. Examples 242

12.4.1. Spiral function 243

12.4.2. Ribbon function 243

12.5. Conclusion 244

12.6. References 244

Chapter 13. An Interval-based Approximation Method for Discrete Changes in Hybrid cc 245
Daisuke Ishii, Kazunori Ueda, Hiroshi Hosobe

13.1. An overview of Hybrid cc 246

13.1.1. The Hybrid cc language 246

13.1.2. Implementation of Hybrid cc 247

13.2. The objective of the chapter 248

13.3. Background of interval arithmetic 248

13.3.1. Basic notions of interval arithmetic 249

13.3.2. ODE solving based on interval arithmetic 249

13.4. The proposed method 249

13.4.1. Assumptions on the proposed method 249

13.4.2. Trace algorithm 250

13.4.3. PruneAndMerge algorithm 251

13.5. Experimental results 252

13.6. Related work 253

13.7. Conclusion 254

13.8. References 254

Part V. Local Search Techniques in Constraint Satisfaction 257
Andrea Roli, Yehuda Naveh

Chapter 14. Combining Adaptive Noise and Look-Ahead in Local Search for SAT 261
Chu Min Li, Wanxia Wei, Harry Zhang

14.1. Implementation of the adaptive noise mechanism in G2WSAT 262

14.2. Look-Ahead for promising decreasing variables 262

14.2.1. Promising score of a variable 262

14.2.2. Integrating limited look-ahead in adaptG2WSAT 263

14.3. Evaluation 264

14.4. Conclusion 266

14.5. References 266

Chapter 15. Finding Large Cliques using SAT Local Search 269
Steven Prestwich

15.1. SAT-encoding the clique problem 270

15.2. Notes on the bitwise at-most-one encoding 271

15.3. Experiments 272

15.4. Conclusion 273

15.5. References 274

Chapter 16. Multi-Point Constructive Search for Constraint Satisfac-tion: An Overview 275
Ivan Heckman, J. Christopher Beck

16.1. Background 276

16.2. Empirical study 277

16.3. Conclusion 279

16.4. References 280

Chapter 17. Boosting SLS Using Resolution 283
Anbulagan, Duc Nghia Pham, John Slaney, Abdul Sattar

17.1. SLS solvers 284

17.2. Preprocessors 285

17.3. Empirical evaluation 286

17.3.1. Clause weighting versus random walk 286

17.3.2. Matching preprocessors to solver-problem pairs 287

17.3.3. Multiple preprocessing and preprocessor ordering 287

17.4. Conclusion 288

17.5. References 288

Chapter 18. Growing COMET 291
Pascal Van Hentenryck, Laurent Michel

18.1. Constraint-based local search 291

18.2. COMET 292

18.3. Modeling 293

18.4. Search 295

18.5. References 296

Part VI. Preferences and Soft Constraints 299
Thomas Schiex

Chapter 19. The Logic Behind Weighted CSP 303
Carlos Ansótegui, María L. Bonet, Jordi Levy, Felip Manyà

19.1. Preliminaries 304

19.2. The inference rule – soundness and completeness 307

19.3. Global consistency in WCSP 310

19.4. Local consistency in WCSP 311

19.5. Conclusions 314

19.6. References 316

Chapter 20. Dynamic Heuristics for Branch and Bound on Tree-Decomposition of Weighted CSPs 317
Philippe Jégou, Samba Ndojh Ndiaye, Cyril Terrioux

20.1. Introduction 317

20.2. Preliminaries 319

20.3. Dynamic orders in O(exp(w + 1)) 322

20.4. Bounded extensions of dynamic orders 324

20.5. Heuristics 325

20.5.1. Cluster orders 325

20.5.2. Variable orders 327

20.5.3. Heuristics for grouping variables in Classes 4 and 5 327

20.6. Experimental study 328

20.7. Discussion and conclusion 330

20.8. References 331

Part VII. Constraints in Software Testing, Verification and Analysis 333
Benjamin Blanc, Arnaud Gotlieb, Claude Michel

Chapter 21. Extending a CP Solver with Congruences as Domains for Program Verification 337
Michel Leconte, Bruno Berstel

21.1. Related work 339

21.2. Congruences as domains 339

21.3. Propagation of congruences as domains 340

21.4. Cooperation of congruences and intervals 342

21.5. Conclusion 342

21.6. References 343

Chapter 22. Generating Random Values Using Binary Decision Dia-grams and Convex Polyhedra 345
Erwan Jahier, Pascal Raymond

22.1. BDD and convex polyhedra 346

22.2. The resolution algorithm 346

22.3. Choosing solutions 348

22.4. Available tools 349

22.5. Related work 350

22.6. Conclusion 351

22.7. References 351

Chapter 23. A Symbolic Model for Hash-Collision Attacks 353
Yannick Chevalier, Mounira Kourjieh

23.1. Terms and subterms 354

23.2. Analysis of reachability properties of cryptographic protocols 356

23.3. Model of a collision-aware intruder 357

23.3.1. Intruder on words 357

23.3.2. Intruder on words with free function symbols 358

23.3.3. Hash-colliding intruder 358

23.4. Conclusion 359

23.5. References 359

Chapter 24. Strategy for Flaw Detection Based on a Service-driven Model for Group Protocols 361
Najah Chridi, Laurent Vigneron

24.1. Protocol modeling and attack search 362

24.1.1. Input of the method 362

24.1.2. Searching for attacks in group protocols 363

24.1.3. Intruder knowledge management 365

24.1.4. Constraint management 366

24.2. Verification results 366

24.3. Summary and future work 367

24.4. References 368

Part VIII. Constraint Programming for Graphical Applications 369
Marc Christie, Hiroshi Hosobe and Kim Marriott

Chapter 25. Trends and Issues in using Constraint Programming for Graphical Applications 371
Marc Christie, Hiroshi Hosobe and Kim Marriott

25.1. More powerful constraint-solving techniques 373

25.1.1. Mixture of discrete and continuous constraints 373

25.1.2. Mixture of linear, polynomial, geometric and non-linear constraints 373

25.1.3. Managing user interaction 374

25.1.4. Managing preferences 374

25.1.5. Generic techniques 375

25.2. Better modeling and understanding of constraint systems by the end-user 376

25.2.1. Model specification 376

25.2.2. Extensibility 377

25.2.3. Constraint representation 377

25.2.4. Understanding constraint interaction during solving 377

25.3. Bridging the gap between the solver and the application semantics 378

25.3.1. High-level modeling 379

25.3.2. Support for interaction 379

25.4. Conclusion 379

25.5. References 380

Chapter 26. A Constraint Satisfaction Framework for Visual Problem Solving 383
Bonny Banerjee, Balakrishnan Chandrasekaran

26.1. The framework 384

26.1.1. A language for expressing visual problems 384

26.1.2. A visual problem solver 388

26.2. Applications 390

26.3. Conclusion 393

26.4. References 393

Chapter 27. Computer Graphics and Constraint Solving: An Applica-tion to Virtual Camera Control 395
Jean-Marie Normand

27.1. Overview 397

27.2. A semantic space partitioning approach 398

27.2.1. Projection property 398

27.2.2. Orientation property 399

27.2.3. Occlusion property 399

27.3. Numerical solving stage 400

27.4. Exploitation of semantic volumes 401

27.4.1. Making requests on the volumes 401

27.4.2. Making requests on the scene 401

27.5. Results 401

27.6. Discussion 403

27.7. References 404

Index 405

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Author Information

Frédéric Benhamou is a Full Professor in the Department of Computer Science and is Head of the Computer Science Research Laboratory at Nantes Atlantic University, France.
 
Narendra Jussien is the President of the French Association for Constraint Programming (AFPC) and is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the Ecole des Mines de Nantes, France.

Barry O’Sullivan is the Associate Director of the Cork Constraint Computation Centre and is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Computer Science at University College Cork, Ireland.

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