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Precast Concrete Structures

ISBN: 978-3-433-02960-2
272 pages
August 2011
Precast Concrete Structures (3433029601) cover image


The book reflects the current situation in precast concrete construction. Besides general observations regarding building with precast concrete elements, the book focuses first and foremost on the boundary conditions for the design of precast concrete structures, loadbearing elements and fašades. Connections and specific structural and constructional issues are covered in detail and stability of precast concrete structures is another central theme. The requirements brought about by the emergence of the European Single Market are explained and the diverse possibilities for fašade design are presented. A chapter on the production processes provides the reader with an indispensable insight into the characteristics of this form of industrialised building.
The book is a practical tool for engineers, but certainly also architects and students.
One of the authors' intentions is to demonstrate to engineers and architects the possibilities that factory prefabrication can offer, and hence pave the way towards the economic application and ongoing development of precast concrete construction.
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Table of Contents

Preface VII

Authors  IX

Preliminary remarks  1

Standards, leaflets and directives  2

1 General  5

1.1 The advantages of factory production  5

1.2 Historical development  6

1.3 European standardisation 9

2 Design of precast concrete structures  15

2.1 Boundary conditions for precast concrete design  16

2.1.1 Production process  16

2.1.2 Tolerances  16

2.1.3 Transport and erection  21

2.1.4 Fire protection  23

2.2 Stability of precast concrete structures  28

2.2.1 Arrangement of stability elements  28

2.2.2 Loads on stability elements 33

2.2.3 Distribution of horizontal loads 45

2.2.4 Verification of building stability  58

2.2.5 Structural design of floor diaphragms  62

2.2.6 Structural design of vertical stability elements  67

2.2.7 Design of perimeter ties to DIN 1045-1 72

2.3 Loadbearing elements 78

2.3.1 Suspended floor elements  78

2.3.2 Floor and roof beams 85

2.3.3 Columns  94

2.3.4 Walls  97

2.3.5 Foundations  99

2.4 Precast concrete façades 101

2.4.1 Environmental influences and the requirements of building physics  102

2.4.2 Façade design 104

2.4.3 Joint design 112

2.4.4 Façade fixings 116

2.4.5 Architectural façades  125

2.5 Connections 130

2.6 Current design issues 139

2.6.1 Additions to cross-sections, floors with concrete topping  139

2.6.2 Corbels and notched beam ends  143

2.6.3 Lateral buckling 156

2.6.4 Pad foundations 163

2.6.5 Design for fire 167

3 Joints between precast concrete elements 175

3.1 Compression joints  175

3.1.1 Butt joints 175

3.1.2 Zones of support to DIN 1045-1  180

3.1.3 Elastomeric bearings to DIN 4141  181

3.1.4 Elastomeric bearings to DIN EN 1337  188

3.2 Tension joints 190

3.2.1 Welded joints 190

3.2.2 Anchoring steel plates, dowels, studs and cast-in channels  193

3.2.3 Shear dowels 195

3.2.4 Screw couplers 198

3.2.5 Transport fixings 199

3.2.6 Retrofitted corbels 201

3.3 Shear joints 203

3.3.1 General 203

3.3.2 Floor diaphragms and wall plates – in-plane shear forces  204

3.3.3 Joints in suspended floor slabs – out-of-plane shear forces  209

4 Factory production  213

4.1 Production methods  213

4.2 Types of concrete in precast concrete construction 219

4.2.1 Processing properties 220

4.2.2 Strength 220

4.2.3 Self-compacting concrete (SCC)  223

4.2.4 Fibre-reinforced concrete  224

4.2.5 Coloured and structured concrete surfaces  225

4.3 Producing the concrete in the factory  227

4.3.1 Heat treatment and curing 227

4.3.2 Working hardened concrete surfaces 229

4.3.3 Coating and cladding 231

4.4 Installing the reinforcement in the factory  233

4.4.1 Round bars and meshes 233

4.4.2 Prestressing beds 237

4.5 Quality control 242

References  245

Index 259

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Author Information

Alfred Steinle (b. 1936) turned Hahn's lecture notes into a manuscript in the early 1970s, which then became the starting point for this book. After a number of years in bridge-building, Alfred Steinle also became heavily involved in precast concrete construction at Zublin. His theoretical work covered bridge-building with torsion and section deformations in box-girder bridges and in precast concrete structures within the scope of the 6M system with corbels, notched beam ends and pocket foundations. In addition, he was a key figure in many precast concrete projects such as the 6M schools, the University of Riyadh, schools with foamed concrete wall panels in Iraq, Zublin House and the construction of a modern automated precasting plant. Alfred Steinle retired in 1999 and by that time he had risen to the post of authorised signatory in the engineering office at Zublin headquarters.

Hubert Bachmann (b. 1959) began his career in 1976 with a training course on concrete and precast concrete construction in a precasting plant. After studying construction engineering and completing his doctorate at the University of Karlsruhe, he accepted a post in the structural engineering office of Ed. Zublin AG, where he has worked since 1993. His duties include the detailed design of structures of all kinds plus research and development in the civil and structural engineering sectors. He has been presenting the series of Hahn lectures at the University of Stuttgart on the subject of the prefabrication of concrete components since 2003.

The authors were or are also intensively involved in construction industry associations, numerous technical bodies plus national and international standards committees dealing with precast concrete construction.
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"A chapter on the production processes provides the reader with an indispensable insight into the charcteristics of this form of industralised bulding. The book is a practical tool for engineers, but certainly also architects and students." (Concrete Architecture & Design, 2011)
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