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Cable-Stayed Bridges: 40 Years of Experience Worldwide

ISBN: 978-3-433-02992-3
458 pages
July 2012
Cable-Stayed Bridges: 40 Years of Experience Worldwide (343302992X) cover image
The need for large-scale bridges is constantly growing due to the enormous infrastructure development around the world. Since the 1970s many of them have been cable-stayed bridges. In 1975 the largest span length was 404 m, in 1995 it increased to 856 m, and today it is 1104 m. Thus the economically efficient range of cable-stayed bridges is tending to move towards even larger spans, and cable-stayed bridges are increasingly the focus of interest worldwide.
This book describes the fundamentals of design analysis, fabrication and construction, in which the author refers to 250 built examples to illustrate all aspects. International or national codes and technical regulations are referred to only as examples, such as bridges that were designed to German DIN, Eurocode, AASHTO, British Standards. The chapters on cables and erection are a major focus of this work as they represent the most important difference from other types of bridges.
The examples were chosen from the bridges in which the author was personally involved, or where the consulting engineers, Leonhardt, Andrä and Partners (LAP), participated significantly. Other bridges are included for their special structural characteristics or their record span lengths. The most important design engineers are also presented.
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1 Introduction 16

1.1 Design fundamentals 17

1.1.1 General 17

1.1.2 Overall system 19

1.1.3 Tower shapes 23

1.1.4 Beam cross-sections 24

1.1.5 Stay cables 26

1.2 Aesthetic guidelines for bridge design 30

1.2.1 Introduction 30

1.2.2 Aesthetic guidelines 30

1.2.3 Collaboration 42

2 The development of cable-stayed bridges 46

2.1 The precursors of cable-stayed bridges 47

2.1.1 Introduction 47

2.1.2 Historical development 47

2.2 Steel cable-stayed bridges 58

2.2.1 Introduction 58

2.2.2 Beginnings 58

2.2.3 The Düsseldorf Bridge Family 59

2.2.4 Further Rhine river bridges 62

2.2.5 Special steel cable-stayed bridges 70

2.2.6 Cable-stayed bridges with record spans 76

2.3 Concrete cable-stayed bridges 80

2.3.1 General 80

2.3.2 Development of concrete cable-stayed bridges 81

2.3.3 Bridges with concrete stays 92

2.3.4 Cable-stayed bridges with thin concrete beams 94

2.3.5 Record spans 98

2.4 Composite cable-stayed bridges 101

2.4.1 General 101

2.4.2 Cross-sections 101

2.4.3 Special details 104

2.4.4 Economic span lengths 104

2.4.5 Beginnings 105

2.4.6 Record spans 105

2.4.7 Latest examples 111

2.5 Special systems of cable-stayed bridges 118

2.5.1 Series of cable-stayed bridges 118

2.5.2 Stayed beams 130

2.5.3 Cable-stayed pedestrian bridges 133

3 Stay cables 140

3.1 General 141

3.2 Locked coil ropes 141

3.2.1 System 141

3.2.2 Fabrication 142

3.2.3 Modern corrosion protection systems 142

3.2.4 Inspection and maintenance 143

3.2.5 Damage 143

3.3 Parallel bar cables 146

3.4 Parallel wire cables 147

3.4.1 System 147

3.4.2 Corrosion protection 148

3.4.3 Fabrication 152

3.5 Parallel strand cables 153

3.5.1 General 153

3.5.2 System 153

3.5.3 Corrosion protection 153

3.5.4 Fabrication 154

3.5.5 Durability tests 154

3.5.6 Monitoring 154

3.6 Cable anchorages 156

3.6.1 General 156

3.6.2 Support of anchor heads 156

3.6.3 Anchorage at the tower 158

3.7 Cable sizing 160

3.7.1 General 160

3.7.2 Sizing by permissible stresses 160

3.7.3 Sizing in ultimate limit state 161

3.7.4 Summary 162

3.8 Cable dynamics 163

3.8.1 General 163

3.8.2 Fundamental parameters 164

3.8.3 Dynamic excitation 165

3.8.4 Countermeasures 169

3.9 Cable installation 175

3.9.1 General 175

3.9.2 Locked coil ropes 175

3.9.3 Parallel wire cables 178

3.9.4 Parallel strand cables 179

3.9.5 Cable calculations 184

4 Preliminary design of cable-stayed bridges 186

4.1 Action forces for equivalent systems 187

4.1.1 General 187

4.1.2 System geometry 187

4.1.3 Normal forces of articulated system 188

4.1.4 Live loads on elastic foundation 189

4.1.5 Permanent loads on rigid supports 192

4.1.6 Towers 195

4.1.7 Stay cables 197

4.2 Action forces of actual systems 197

4.2.1 Permanent loads 197

4.2.2 Live loads 202

4.2.3 Kern point moments 204

4.2.4 Non-linear theory (second order theory) 206

4.2.5 Superposition 208

4.2.6 Temperature 208

4.2.7 Eigenfrequencies 210

4.3 Bridge dynamics 211

4.3.1 General 211

4.3.2 Overview of wind effects 213

4.3.3 Wind profile, turbulence and turbulence-induced oscillations 214

4.3.4 Vortex-induced vibrations 222

4.3.5 Self-excitation and other motion-induced effects 224

4.3.6 Damping measures 236

4.3.7 Wind tunnel testing 240

4.3.8 Earthquake 244

4.4 Protection of bridges against ship collision 248

4.4.1 Introduction 248

4.4.2 Collision forces 248

4.4.3 Protective structures 252

4.5 Preliminary design calculations 266

4.5.1 General 266

4.5.2 Typical cable-stayed concrete bridge 266

4.5.3 Typical cable-stayed steel bridge 270

4.5.4 Cable-stayed bridge with side spans on piers 272

4.5.5 Cable-stayed bridge with harp arrangement 275

4.5.6 Cable-stayed bridge with longitudinal A-tower 276

4.5.7 Slender cable-stayed concrete bridge 279

5 Construction of cable-stayed bridges 290

5.1 Examples 291

5.1.1 General 291

5.1.2 Tower construction 291

5.1.3 Beam construction 292

5.2 Construction engineering 312

5.2.1 General 312

5.2.2 Construction engineering by dismantling 312

5.2.3 Example for construction engineering 316

5.2.4 Design of auxiliary stays 320

5.2.5 Auxiliary tie-backs for travelers 323

6 Examples for typical cable-stayed bridges 326

6.1 Cable-stayed concrete bridges with precast beams 327

6.1.1 General 327

6.1.2 Pasco-Kennewick Bridge 327

6.1.3 East Huntington Bridge 346

6.2 CIP concrete cable-stayed bridge Helgeland Bridge 352

6.2.1 General layout 352

6.2.2 Construction 358

6.2.3 Summary 367

6.3 Cable-stayed steel bridge Strelasund Crossing 369

6.3.1 Design considerations 369

6.3.2 The cable-stayed bridge 371

6.3.3 Construction 375

6.4 Composite cable-stayed bridge Baytown Bridge 387

6.4.1 General layout 387

6.4.2 Construction 391

6.4.3 Summary 401

6.5 Hybrid cable-stayed bridge Normandy Bridge 402

6.5.1 Design considerations 402

6.5.2 Construction 404

6.6 Series of cable-stayed bridges 411

6.6.1 Millau Bridge 411

6.6.2 Rion-Antirion Bridge 418

7 Future development 426

Index 428

Bridge Index 428

References 431

Figure Origins 439

List of Advertisers 441

Appendix: 40 years of experience with major bridges all over the world 443

Beginnings 443

Bridges in Germany 443

Cable-stayed bridges abroad 445

New developments by competition 446

Checking of bridges 449

Participation in Code Commissions 452

Current projects 452

Summary 453

References 454

Lectures on cable-stayed bridges on DVD 458

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Holger Svensson's name stands for 40 years of large-scale bridge construction the world over. He obtained his diploma from Stuttgart University and, since 1972, has worked with the world-famous Fritz Leonhardt. At LAP, Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Holger Svensson, PE, CEng, FIStructE, has been active as structural engineer, project manager and chief engineer, and from 1992 to 2010 as managing director and chairman of the board. He has been responsible for the design analysis, construction engineering and checking of cable-stayed bridges around the world, such as the Pasco-Kennewick Bridge over the Columbia River, USA, and the Helgeland Bridge over Leirfjord, Norway.
Since 2009 he has been a lecturer and since 2012 is a professor at Dresden University where he teaches all aspects of the design and construction of cable-stayed bridges.
Holger Svensson was for eight years a vice-president of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) and is currently an independent consulting engineer and a member of the juries for German bridge and structural engineering prizes.

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“A welcome addition to the book is a chapter on construction engineering . . .This is a useful reference source for the design of both temporary and permanent works.”  (Structural Engineer, 1 September 2012)

This great work has been the best academic
book in cable-stayed bridges since construction
and design of cable-stayed bridges authored
by W. Podolny and J. B. Scalzi published in 1976 (Steel Construction 3/2012)
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Cable-Stayed Bridges: 40 Years of Experience Worldwide (US $185.00)

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