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Estimating in Heavy Construction: Roads, Bridges, Tunnels, Foundations

ISBN: 978-3-433-03130-8
284 pages
December 2016
Estimating in Heavy Construction: Roads, Bridges, Tunnels, Foundations (3433031304) cover image

Description

This book presents the theoretical background as well as best practice examples of estimating in heavy construction. The examples stem from practitioners in international large-scale construction projects. As distinct from other publications on estimating, this book presents specific numbers and costs are calculated precisely.
In this way the book helps to avoid errors in the estimating of construction projects like roads, bridges, tunnels, and foundations.
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Table of Contents

List of Authors V

Foreword VII

Preface IX

List of Abbreviations XIII

List of Figues XVII

List of Tables XXI

1 Strategy and estimating 1

1.1 Sales and marketing strategies 1

1.2 Production and procurement strategies 5

1.3 Financing strategies 8

2 Estimating costs in heavy construction 11

2.1 Foundations of construction business management 11

2.1.1 Estimating goals 11

2.1.2 Key financial cost terminology 12

2.1.3 Types of construction contracts 17

2.1.4 Estimating methods 20

2.1.5 Further development of the pre-estimate 24

2.1.6 Coexistence of construction schedule, risk management plan and capital commitment plan. 26

2.1.7 Liquidity planning and capital cost 28

2.2 Estimating of earthworks 33

2.2.1 Introduction 33

2.2.2 Construction site conditions 34

2.2.3 Bases of calculation. 36

2.2.4 Preparatory work, systematization of the earthwork engineering services 43

2.2.5 Corresponding factors of construction execution 44

2.2.6 Calculation of the partial activities 45

2.2.7 Conclusion 50

2.3 Estimating in road construction 51

2.3.1 Construction specifications 51

2.3.2 Direct costs of the partial activities 52

2.3.3 Overheads and other surcharges 53

2.3.4 Calculation example 53

2.4 Estimating in bridge construction 65

2.4.1 Basics 65

2.4.2 Example – Steel composite bridge 67

2.4.3 Example – Prestressed concrete bridge 89

2.5 Estimating in tunnel construction 122

2.5.1 Introduction 122

2.5.2 Example – Cutting shield boring 122

2.5.3 Example of traditional tunnel construction 143

2.5.4 Example – Floating assembly 163

2.5.5 Costing and pricing 169

2.6 Estimating of foundation engineering works 180

2.6.1 Basics 180

2.6.2 Costing and pricing 182

2.6.3 Examples 183

3 Special aspects of the estimating process 205

3.1 Claim management 205

3.1.1 Introduction 205

3.1.2 Contractual basics 205

3.1.3 Chosen change orders during the construction process 206

3.1.4 Example calculation 206

3.2 Construction in foreign countries 208

3.2.1 Financial risks and dispute resolutions 209

3.2.2 Safeguarding foreign construction projects and export transactions  211

3.2.3 Hedging foreign exchange transactions 220

3.3 Calculation of risks 220

3.3.1 Major functional risk sectors 221

3.3.2 Typical risk sharing in life-cycle valuations of construction projects 225

3.3.3 Cost accounting assessment of risks 229

3.3.4 Risk evaluation tools 230

3.3.5 Risk transfer 232

3.4 Features of joint ventures 233

3.4.1 Basics 233

3.4.2 Characteristics of the estimating process 235

3.5 Using estimating software 239

3.5.1 Objectives and benefits 239

3.5.2 Recourse to master data 239

3.5.3 EDP evaluation 241

3.5.4 Master data organization 242

3.5.5 EDP master data 246

3.5.6 Example – Topsoil excavation and storage 248

3.5.7 Example – Soil excavation and integration 249

3.5.8 Approaching the market price 249

3.5.9 Summary and conclusion 251

References 253

Index 257

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Author Information

Professor Dieter Jacob holds the chair of Construction Management at the Technical University Freiberg. Aside from that he runs his own engineering and cosulting office. He is author and editor of various books on estimating in construction.
Clemens Müller, MSc, is a research associate at the chair of Construction Management at the Technical University Freiberg.
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