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Agglomeration in Industry: Occurence and Applications

ISBN: 978-3-527-30582-7
834 pages
December 2004
Agglomeration in Industry: Occurence and Applications (3527305823) cover image

Description

An up-to-date overview dealing with the occurrence and key applications of agglomeration, including unwanted adhesion and beneficial size enlargement in pharmaceutical, food and animal feed, chemical, fertilizer and agrochemical, mineral, building material and ceramic, metal, solid fuel, as well as other industries. Furthermore, the book emphasizes recent developments at the level of single particles and applications of agglomeration phenomena in nanotechnology.

The author has a vast academic and industrial experience as researcher, teacher, developer, designer, vendor, and user. He is an expert and consultant in the field of agglomeration, its technologies and products. This background makes the detailed evaluation of the subject possible. Wolfgang Pietsch has held a number of leading positions in both US and German companies and is a frequent speaker at conferences and seminars. He has already written three earlier books on agglomeration.

Intended for everybody working in companies that process and handle particulate solids, this book helps in understanding and controlling unwanted agglomeration as well as promoting the application, development, and improvement of methods for the beneficial use of agglomeration.
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Table of Contents

Preface IX

Volume 1

1 Introduction 1

2 Agglomeration as a Generic, Independent, and Interdisciplinary Field of Science 3

3 Agglomeration Fundamentals 7

3.1 Structure and Bonding 7

3.2 Binding Mechanisms 11

3.3 Particle Size of the Particulate Solid 14

3.4 Binders and Additives 14

3.5 Strength 15

3.6 Determination of Strength 18

3.7 Porosity 21

4 Undesired Agglomeration: Methods of Avoiding or Lessening its Effect 23

4.1 Separation 23

4.2 Mixing 27

4.3 Comminution 27

4.4 Agglomeration 30

4.5 Transportation 30

4.6 Storage 31

5 Beneficial Uses of Agglomeration: Agglomeration Technologies and Methods 37

5.1 Tumble or Growth Agglomeration 38

5.2 Pressure Agglomeration 47

5.3 Agglomeration by Heat/Sintering 53

5.4 Technologies Using the Phenomena and Fundamentals of Agglomeration for Purposes other than Size Enlargement 54

6 Industrial Applications of Size Enlargement by Agglomeration 59

6.1 General Applications 61

6.1.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 77

6.1.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 80

6.1.3 Other Technologies 83

6.2 Pharmaceutical Applications 85

6.2.1 Tumble/Growth Agglomeration Technologies 90

6.2.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 114

6.2.3 Other Technologies 147

6.3 Applications in the Chemical Industry 167

6.3.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 169

6.3.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 181

6.3.3 Other Technologies 202

6.4 Applications in the Food Industry 206

6.4.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 215

6.4.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 229

6.4.3 Other Technologies 244

6.5 Applications for Animal Feeds 247

6.5.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 248

6.5.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 252

6.5.3 Other Technologies 266

6.6 Fertilizers and Agrochemicals 266

6.6.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 270

6.6.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 281

6.6.3 Other Technologies 297

6.7 Building Materials and Ceramics 303

6.7.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 304

6.7.2 Pressure Agglomeration Techniques 313

6.7.3 Other Technologies 333

6.8 Applications in the Mining Industry (Minerals and Ores) 347

6.8.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 349

6.8.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 374

6.8.3 Other Technologies 381

6.9 Applications in the Metallurgical Industry 385

6.9.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 386

6.9.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 386

6.9.3 Other Technologies 412

6.10 Applications for Solid Fuels 415

6.10.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 417

6.10.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 419

6.10.3 Other Technologies 455

6.11 Special Applications 459

6.11.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 459

6.11.2 Pressure Agglomeration Techniques 464

6.11.3 Other Technologies 469

Indexes I 1

List of Vendors I 1

Subject Index I 53

List of Figures I 80

List of Tables I 103

Volume 2

7 Powder Metallurgy 479

8 Applications in Environmental Control 485

8.1 Collection, Stabilization, and Deposition of Particulate Solids 489

8.1.1 Size Enlargement by Agglomeration during the Collection of Particulate Solids 489

8.1.2 Size Enlargement by Agglomeration for the Stabilization and Disposal of Particulate Solid Wastes 499

8.2 Recycling/Secondary Raw Materials 502

8.2.1 Historical Review of Waste Production 502

8.2.2 Agglomeration Technologies for the Size Enlargement of Wastes 504

8.2.3 Applications in the Mineral, Metallurgical, and Energy Related Industries 505

8.2.4 Applications in Regional and Municipal Material Recycling Plants 518

8.2.5 Other Applications 533

8.2.6 Recycling of Polymers 537

9 Development of Industrial Applications 541

9.1 Test Facilities 545

9.2 Tolling Operations: Contract Manufacturing 566

9.3 Scale-Up 573

10 Optimization and Troubleshooting of Agglomeration Systems 589

10.1 Tumble/Growth Technologies 596

10.1.1 Particle Size 597

10.1.2 Particle Size Distribution 597

10.1.3 Particle Shape 599

10.1.4 Chemical and Physical Surface Properties 601

10.1.5 Binder Interaction 601

10.1.6 Equipment Type and/or Size 601

10.1.7 Optimization 602

10.1.8 Troubleshooting 604

10.2 Pressure Agglomeration Technologies 616

10.2.1 Low- and Medium-Pressure Methods 618

10.2.2 High-Pressure Agglomeration Methods 621

10.3 Other Technologies 630

11 Applications of Agglomeration Phenomena for Single Particles and in Nanotechnologies 633

11.1 Occurrence and Applications of Agglomeration Phenomena for the Attachment and Bonding of Single Particles to Surfaces and Substrates 639

11.2 Some Examples of Nanoparticles with Special Characteristics 642

11.3 Applications of Agglomeration in Nanotechnologies 644

12 Outlook 655

13 Bibliography 661

13.1 List of Books or Major Chapters on Agglomeration and Related Subjects 662

13.2 References 669

13.3 Author’s Biography, Patents, and Publications 676

14 Glossary of Application-Related Terms Associated with Agglomeration 693

15 Indexes 721

15.1 List of Vendors 721

15.2 Subject Index 773

15.3 List of Figures 800

15.4 List of Tables 823

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Author Information

Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Pietsch is an independent, unaffiliated Consultant in the general fields of mechanical process engineering and, particularly, size enlargement by agglomeration. He received his Ph.D. at the Technical University of Karlsruhe (Germany) with the work on the fundamentals of binding mechanisms of agglomeration in 1965. He did further research in the general field of size enlargement by agglomeration at the Institute of Mechanical Process Engineering, Karlsruhe, and taught at the University of Stuttgart in Heilbronn, Germany. He was awarded the title Europa Ingenieur (EUR ING) by the European Federation of National Engineering Associations (1994).
During his entire career Dr. Pietsch was involved in mechanical process technology as a researcher, teacher, process developer, designer, vendor, and user. His latest industrial positions include: Director Agglomeration Systems and Product Technology at MIDREX, Charlotte, NC (USA), General Manager Large Metallurgical Systems at Leybold-Heraeus, Hanau (Germany), Senior Technical Manager at Maschinenfabrik KÖPPERN, Hattingen (Germany), and President at KOPPERN Equipment, Charlotte, NC, and Pittsburgh, PA (USA). In 1983, he became Senior Consultant of COMPACTCONSULT in Naples, FL (USA).
Dr. Pietsch is the author of more than 160 papers, four books, and holds nine patents. He is a member of five professional organizations in the USA and Germany (AIChE/PTF, SME of AIME, IBA and VDI/VTG/GVC, DECHEMA) and is active in a number of technical committes. He is a frequent lecturer of workshops and short courses.
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