XRays, Neutrons and MuonsISBN: 9783527307746
248 pages
September 2012

Spectroscopy is a versatile tool for the characterization of materials, and photons in the visible frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum have been used successfully for more than a century now. But other elementary particles such as neutrons, muons and xray photons have been proven to be useful probes as well and are routinely generated in modern cyclotrons and synchrotrons. They offer attractive
alternative ways of probing condensed matter in order to better understand its properties and to correlate material behavior with its structure. In particular, the combination of these different spectroscopic probes yields rich information on the material samples, thereby allowing for a systematic investigation down to atomic resolutions.
This book gives a practical account of how well they complement each other for 21st century material characterization, and provides the basis for a detailed understanding of the scattering processes and the knowledge of the relevant microscopic interactions necessary for the correct interpretation of the experimentally obtained spectroscopic data.
alternative ways of probing condensed matter in order to better understand its properties and to correlate material behavior with its structure. In particular, the combination of these different spectroscopic probes yields rich information on the material samples, thereby allowing for a systematic investigation down to atomic resolutions.
This book gives a practical account of how well they complement each other for 21st century material characterization, and provides the basis for a detailed understanding of the scattering processes and the knowledge of the relevant microscopic interactions necessary for the correct interpretation of the experimentally obtained spectroscopic data.
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PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
Some Historical Remarks
The Experimental Methods
The Solid as a Many Body
Survey over the Spectral Region of a Solid
THE PROBES, THEIR ORIGIN AND PROPERTIES
Origin
Properties
Magnetic Field of the Probing Particles
INTERACTION OF THE PROBES WITH THE CONSTITUENTS OF MATTER
The Nuclear Interaction of Neutrons
Interaction of XRays with Atomic Constituents
Magnetic Interaction
Corollar
SCATTERING ON (BULK)SAMPLES
Introduction
The Sample as a Thermodynamic System
The Scattering Experiment
Properties of the Scattering and Correlation Function
General Form of SpinDependent CrossSections
Summary and Conclusions
GENERAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Time Development of the Density Operator
Generalized Suspectibility
Dielectric Response Function and Sum Rules
APPENDIX A: PRINCIPLES OF SCATTERING THEORY
Potential Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.1)
Two Particle Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.2)
Abstract Scattering Theory (Supporting Section 3.2)
TimeDependent Perturbation
Scattering of Light on Atoms
Polarization and its Analysis
APPENDIX B: FORM FACTORS
APPENDIX C: REMINDER ON STATISTICAL MECHANICS
The Statistical Operator P
The Equation of Motion
Entropy
Thermal Equilibrium 
The Canonical Distribution
Thermodynamics
APPENDIX D: THE MAGNETIC MATRIXELEMENTS
The Trammell Expansion
The Matrix Elements
Conclusion
APPENDIX E: THE PRINCIPLE OF A MSREXPERIMENT
APPENDIX F: REFLECTION SYMMETRY AND TIMEREVERSAL INVARIANCE
Invariance Under Space Inversion Q
Invariance Under Time Reversal
APPENDIX G: PHONON COUPLING TO HEAT BATH
INTRODUCTION
Some Historical Remarks
The Experimental Methods
The Solid as a Many Body
Survey over the Spectral Region of a Solid
THE PROBES, THEIR ORIGIN AND PROPERTIES
Origin
Properties
Magnetic Field of the Probing Particles
INTERACTION OF THE PROBES WITH THE CONSTITUENTS OF MATTER
The Nuclear Interaction of Neutrons
Interaction of XRays with Atomic Constituents
Magnetic Interaction
Corollar
SCATTERING ON (BULK)SAMPLES
Introduction
The Sample as a Thermodynamic System
The Scattering Experiment
Properties of the Scattering and Correlation Function
General Form of SpinDependent CrossSections
Summary and Conclusions
GENERAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Time Development of the Density Operator
Generalized Suspectibility
Dielectric Response Function and Sum Rules
APPENDIX A: PRINCIPLES OF SCATTERING THEORY
Potential Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.1)
Two Particle Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.2)
Abstract Scattering Theory (Supporting Section 3.2)
TimeDependent Perturbation
Scattering of Light on Atoms
Polarization and its Analysis
APPENDIX B: FORM FACTORS
APPENDIX C: REMINDER ON STATISTICAL MECHANICS
The Statistical Operator P
The Equation of Motion
Entropy
Thermal Equilibrium 
The Canonical Distribution
Thermodynamics
APPENDIX D: THE MAGNETIC MATRIXELEMENTS
The Trammell Expansion
The Matrix Elements
Conclusion
APPENDIX E: THE PRINCIPLE OF A MSREXPERIMENT
APPENDIX F: REFLECTION SYMMETRY AND TIMEREVERSAL INVARIANCE
Invariance Under Space Inversion Q
Invariance Under Time Reversal
APPENDIX G: PHONON COUPLING TO HEAT BATH
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Walter E. Fischer (19392008) was the former head of the Department of Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons and Muons (NUM) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. He pioneered in establishing the spallation neutron source SINQ at PSI which went into operation in the mid1990s. Later he foundes a condensed matter theory group to complement the experimental work at the neutron source.
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XRays, Neutrons and Muons (US $88.00)
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