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X-Rays, Neutrons and Muons

ISBN: 978-3-527-30774-6
248 pages
September 2012
X-Rays, Neutrons and Muons (3527307745) cover image

Description

Spectroscopy is a versatile tool for the characterization of materials, and photons in the visible frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum have been used successfully for more than a century now. But other elementary particles such as neutrons, muons and x-ray photons have been proven to be useful probes as well and are routinely generated in modern cyclotrons and synchrotrons. They offer attractive
alternative ways of probing condensed matter in order to better understand its properties and to correlate material behavior with its structure. In particular, the combination of these different spectroscopic probes yields rich information on the material samples, thereby allowing for a systematic investigation down to atomic resolutions.

This book gives a practical account of how well they complement each other for 21st century material characterization, and provides the basis for a detailed understanding of the scattering processes and the knowledge of the relevant microscopic interactions necessary for the correct interpretation of the experimentally obtained spectroscopic data.
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Table of Contents

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION
Some Historical Remarks
The Experimental Methods
The Solid as a Many Body
Survey over the Spectral Region of a Solid

THE PROBES, THEIR ORIGIN AND PROPERTIES
Origin
Properties
Magnetic Field of the Probing Particles

INTERACTION OF THE PROBES WITH THE CONSTITUENTS OF MATTER
The Nuclear Interaction of Neutrons
Interaction of X-Rays with Atomic Constituents
Magnetic Interaction
Corollar

SCATTERING ON (BULK-)SAMPLES
Introduction
The Sample as a Thermodynamic System
The Scattering Experiment
Properties of the Scattering and Correlation Function
General Form of Spin-Dependent Cross-Sections
Summary and Conclusions

GENERAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Time Development of the Density Operator
Generalized Suspectibility
Dielectric Response Function and Sum Rules

APPENDIX A: PRINCIPLES OF SCATTERING THEORY
Potential Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.1)
Two Particle Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.2)
Abstract Scattering Theory (Supporting Section 3.2)
Time-Dependent Perturbation
Scattering of Light on Atoms
Polarization and its Analysis

APPENDIX B: FORM FACTORS

APPENDIX C: REMINDER ON STATISTICAL MECHANICS
The Statistical Operator P
The Equation of Motion
Entropy
Thermal Equilibrium -
The Canonical Distribution
Thermodynamics

APPENDIX D: THE MAGNETIC MATRIX-ELEMENTS
The Trammell Expansion
The Matrix Elements
Conclusion

APPENDIX E: THE PRINCIPLE OF A MSR-EXPERIMENT

APPENDIX F: REFLECTION SYMMETRY AND TIME-REVERSAL INVARIANCE
Invariance Under Space Inversion Q
Invariance Under Time Reversal

APPENDIX G: PHONON COUPLING TO HEAT BATH
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Author Information

Walter E. Fischer (1939-2008) was the former head of the Department of Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons and Muons (NUM) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. He pioneered in establishing the spallation neutron source SINQ at PSI which went into operation in the mid-1990s. Later he foundes a condensed matter theory group to complement the experimental work at the neutron source.
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