XRays, Neutrons and MuonsISBN: 9783527307746
248 pages
September 2012

alternative ways of probing condensed matter in order to better understand its properties and to correlate material behavior with its structure. In particular, the combination of these different spectroscopic probes yields rich information on the material samples, thereby allowing for a systematic investigation down to atomic resolutions.
This book gives a practical account of how well they complement each other for 21st century material characterization, and provides the basis for a detailed understanding of the scattering processes and the knowledge of the relevant microscopic interactions necessary for the correct interpretation of the experimentally obtained spectroscopic data.
Foreword V
Preface XI
About the Book XIII
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Some Historical Remarks 1
1.2 The Experimental Methods 2
1.3 The Solid as a Many Body 6
1.4 Survey over the Spectral Region of a Solid 9
References 11
2 The Probes, their Origin and Properties 13
2.1 Origin 13
2.1.1 The Photon 13
2.2 Properties 15
2.3 Magnetic Field of the Probing Particles 25
3 Interaction of the Probes with the Constituents of Matter 27
3.1 The Nuclear Interaction of Neutrons 27
3.2 Interaction of XRays with Atomic Constituents 36
3.3 Magnetic Interaction 49
3.4 Corollar 55
References 58
4 Scattering on (Bulk)Samples 59
4.1 Introduction 59
4.2 The Sample as a Thermodynamic System 59
4.3 The Scattering Experiment 66
4.4 Properties of the Scattering and Correlation Function 83
4.5 General Form of SpinDependent CrossSections 88
4.6 Summary and Conclusions 123
References 125
5 General Theoretical Framework 127
5.1 Time Development of the Density Operator 127
5.2 Generalized Suspectibility 142
5.3 Dielectric Response Function and Sum Rules 157
References 173
Appendix A: Principles of Scattering Theory 175
A.1 Potential Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.1) 175
A.2 Two Particle Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.2) 179
A.3 Abstract Scattering Theory (Supporting Section 3.2) 180
A.4 TimeDependent Perturbation 183
A.5 Scattering of Light on Atoms 186
A.6 Polarization and its Analysis 188
References 190
Appendix B: Form Factors 191
References 195
Appendix C: Reminder on Statistical Mechanics 197
C.1 The Statistical Operator P 197
C.2 The Equation of Motion 198
C.3 Entropy 198
C.4 Thermal Equilibrium – The Canonical Distribution 199
C.5 Thermodynamics 200
Appendix D: The Magnetic MatrixElements 203
D.1 The Trammell Expansion 203
D.2 The Matrix Elements 205
D.3 Conclusion 210
References 211
Appendix E: The Principle of a mSRExperiment 213
Appendix F: Reflection Symmetry and TimeReversal Invariance 217
F.1 Invariance Under Space Inversion Q 217
F.2 Invariance Under Time Reversal 218
Appendix G: Phonon Coupling to Heat Bath 221
References 223
Further Reading 225
Index 227