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Artificial Photosynthesis: From Basic Biology to Industrial Application

ISBN: 978-3-527-31090-6
339 pages
September 2005
Artificial Photosynthesis: From Basic Biology to Industrial Application (3527310908) cover image
Since the events crucial to plant photosynthesis are now known in molecular detail, this process is no longer nature's secret, but can for the first time be mimicked by technology. Broad in its scope, this book spans the basics of biological photosynthesis right up to the current approaches for its technical exploitation, making it the most complete resource on artificial photosynthesis ever published.

The contents draw on the expertise of the Australian Artificial Photosynthesis Network, currently the world's largest coordinated research effort to develop effective photosynthesis technology. This is further backed by expert contributions from around the globe, providing an authoritative overview of current research worldwide.

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Foreword V

Preface IX

List of Contributors XXIII

Part I The Context 1

1 Artificial Photosynthesis: Social and Political Issues 3
Ian Lowe

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 The Need for a Transition to Artificial Photosynthesis 4

1.3 Some Associated Social and Political Issues 6

1.4 Using the Available Photons: Towards Sustainability Science 9

1.5 Conclusions 11

2 An Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis Model 13
Ron J. Pace

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Natural Photosynthesis 13

2.3 Artificial Photosynthesis: An Integrated Strategy 17

2.4 A Technological Approach to Photosynthesis 19

2.5 Program 1: Biomimetic Photoelectric Generation 20

2.6 Program 2: Electrolytic Hydrogen 24

2.7 Programs 3 and 4: Waterless Agriculture 28

2.8 Conclusions 33

Part II Capturing Sunlight 35

3 Broadband Photon-harvesting Biomolecules for Photovoltaics 37
Paul Meredith, Ben J. Powell, Jenny Riesz, Robert Vogel, David Blake, Indriani Kartini, Geff Will, and Surya Subianto

3.1 Introduction 37

3.2 The Photoelectrochemical Grätzel Cell (Dye-sensitized Solar Cell) 39

3.3 Typical Components and Performance of a DSSC 41

3.4 Melanins as Broadband Sensitizers for DSSCs 48

3.4.5 A DSSC Based Upon Synthetic Eumelanin 62

3.5 Conclusions 63

4 The Design of Natural Photosynthetic Antenna Systems 67
Nancy E. Holt, Harsha M. Vaswani, and Graham R. Fleming

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Confined Geometries: From Weak to Strong Coupling and Everything in Between 68

4.3 Energetic Disorder Within Light-harvesting Complexes 73

4.4 Photochemistry and Photoprotection in the Bacterial Reaction Center 78

4.5 The Regulation of Photosynthetic Light Harvesting 79

4.6 Concluding Remarks 83

5 Identifying Redox-active Chromophores in Photosystem II by Low-temperature Optical Spectroscopies 87
Elmars Krausz and Sindra Peterson Arskold

5.1 Introduction 87

5.2 Experimental Methods 89

5.3 Results and Discussion 91

5.4 Conclusions 103

6 The Nature of the Special-pair Radical Cation Produced by Primary Charge Separation During Photosynthesis 109
Jeffrey R. Reimers and Noel S. Hush

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 The Special Pair 109

6.3 The Hole-transfer Band 113

6.4 Initial Investigations of the Hole-transfer Band 116

6.5 Identification of the SHOMO to HOMO Band 118

6.6 Full Spectral Simulations Involving all Bands 119

6.7 Predicting Chemical Properties Based on the Spectral Analysis 121

6.8 Conclusions 125

7 Protein-based Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Centers 127
Reza Razeghifard and Thomas J. Wydrzynski

7.1 Introduction 127

7.2 Natural Reaction Centers 127

7.3 Synthetic and Semi-synthetic Reaction Centers 130

7.4 Perspective 140

8 Novel Geometry Polynorbornane Scaffolds for Chromophore Linkage and Spacing 147
Ronald N. Warrener, Davor Margetic, David A. Mann, Zhi-Long Chen, and Douglas N. Butler

8.1 Introduction 147

8.2 Results and Discussion 151

8.3 Preliminary Results 155

8.4 Conclusions 157

8.5 Dyad Nomenclature 158

Part III Feeding the Grid from the Sun 167

9 Very High-efficiency in Silico Photovoltaics 169
Martin A. Green

9.1 Introduction 169

9.2 Silicon Wafer Approach 171

9.3 Thin-film Approaches 173

9.4 Third-generation Technologies 178

9.5 Conclusions 183

10 Mimicking Bacterial Photosynthesis 187
Devens Gust, Thomas A. Moore, and Ana L. Moore

10.1 Introduction 187

10.2 Natural Photosynthesis 188

10.3 Artificial Photosynthesis 190

10.4 Conclusions 208

Part IV Photohydrogen 211

11 Development of Algal Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction: Addressing the Hydrogenase Oxygen-sensitivity Problem 213
Maria L. Ghirardi, Paul King, Sergey Kosourov, Marc Forestier, Liping Zhang, and Michael Seibert

11.1 Introduction 213

11.2 Sulfur Deprivation and Hydrogen Photoproduction 214

11.3 Molecular Engineering of the Algal Hydrogenase 221

12 Bioengineering of Green Algae to Enhance Photosynthesis and Hydrogen Production 229
Anastasios Melis

12.1 Introduction 229

12.2 Rationale and Approach 230

12.3 Physiological State of the Chl Antenna Size in Green Algae 231

12.4 The Genetic Control Mechanism of the Chl Antenna Size in Green Algae 232

12.5 Effect of Pigment Mutations on the Chl Antenna Size of Photosynthesis 233

12.6 Genes for the Regulation of the Chl Antenna Size of Photosynthesis 235

12.7 Conclusions 237

Part V The Carbon Connection 241

13 Manipulating Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase in the Chloroplasts of Higher Plants 243
T. John Andrews and Spencer M. Whitney

13.1 Introduction 243

13.2 Why Manipulate Rubisco in Plants? 243

13.3 What Constitutes an Efficient Rubisco? 245

13.4 How to Find a Better Rubisco? 248

13.5 How to Manipulate Rubisco in Plants? 250

13.6 What Have We Learned So Far? 252

13.7 Priorities for Future Manipulation of Rubisco in vivo 257

13.8 Conclusions 259

14 Defining the Inefficiencies in the Chemical Mechanism of the Photosynthetic Enzyme Rubisco by Computational Simulation 263
Jill E. Gready

14.1 Introduction 263

14.2 Computational Methods 267

14.3 Results and Discussion 271

14.4 Conclusions 281

15 Carbon-based End Products of Artificial Photosynthesis 283
Thomas D. Sharkey

15.1 Introduction 283

15.2 What Are the End Products of Plant Chloroplast Photosynthesis? 284

15.3 Does End-product Synthesis Ever Limit Photosynthesis? 285

15.4 What Would Be a Desirable Carbon-based End Product of Photosynthesis? 286

16 The Artificial Photosynthesis System: An Engineering Approach 291
Dilip K. Desai

16.1 Introduction 291

16.2 Engineering Approach to APS 291

16.3 Elements of the Engineering Approach 292

16.4 Elements of Envisaged System 294

16.5 Cyanobacteria 295

16.6 Photo-bioreactor 296

16.7 Theory 296

16.8 Results 298

16.9 Conclusions 299

17 Greenhouse Gas Technologies: A Pathway to Decreasing Carbon Intensity 301
Peter J. Cook

17.1 Introduction 301

17.2 CO2 Capture 301

17.3 Storing CO2 303

17.4 Australian Initiatives: Capture and Storage Technologies 306

17.5 Conclusions 307

References 308

Subject Index 309

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Tony Collings studied chemical engineering at the University of New South Wales and anthropology at the University of Sydney (Australia). He holds a PhD and DIC degree from London University (UK). Following postdoctoral work at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena (USA) he joined the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Industrial Physics division in Lindfield (Australia), where his research interests have been in the physics of liquids, ultrasonics and biophysics. He led a research team that won the Australian Institute of Engineers Research Excellence Award. He is the convener of the Australian Artificial Photosynthesis Network.

Christa Critchley studied botany, biochemistry and genetics at the University of Cologne and completed her PhD at the Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf (Germany). Following postdoctoral work at CSIRO in Sydney, the Australian National University in Canberra and at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA) she was awarded a National Research Fellowship at the Australian National University. She then joined the University of Queensland where she is now Professor of Botany and the Deputy Director of the UQ Graduate School. Her research interests are the biophysics and biochemistry of plant photosystem II and biomembranes. She is a founding member of the Australian Artificial Photosynthesis Network.

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"The book is very readable and is a useful addition to the literature."
Chemistry World

"...the book could serve as an introduction to the broad and heterogeneous field of artificial photosynthesis, and for presenting a wider perspective to researchers who are active in any of the sub-areas."
Angewandte Chemie International Edition

"This book would prove a worthwhile resource to anyone concerned with artificial photosynthesis."
Biotechnology Advances

"Numerous tables, charts and figures throughout this volume provide excellent illustrative material to support the detailed information presented in text. In conclusion, this book outlines the first steps of research in service to energy transformation. This book can be used as a textbook in teaching course as well as in research jobs of this field."
Carbohydrate Polymers
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