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Ceramics Science and Technology, Volume 3, Synthesis and Processing

Ralf Riedel (Editor), I-Wei Chen (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-31157-6
554 pages
December 2011
Ceramics Science and Technology, Volume 3, Synthesis and Processing (3527311572) cover image
Although ceramics have been known to mankind literally for millennia, research has never ceased. Apart from the classic uses as a bulk material in pottery, construction, and decoration, the latter half of the twentieth century saw an explosive growth of application fields, such as electrical and thermal insulators, wear-resistant bearings, surface coatings, lightweight armour, or aerospace materials. In addition to plain, hard solids, modern ceramics come in many new guises such as fabrics, ultrathin films, microstructures and hybrid composites.
Built on the solid foundations laid down by the 20-volume series Materials Science and Technology, Ceramics Science and Technology picks out this exciting material class and illuminates it from all sides.
Materials scientists, engineers, chemists, biochemists, physicists and medical researchers alike will find this work a treasure trove for a wide range of ceramics knowledge from theory and fundamentals to practical approaches and problem solutions.
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Preface XV

List of Contributors XVII

Part I Powders 1

1 Powder Compaction by Dry Pressing 3
Rainer Oberacker

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Fundamental Aspects of Dry Pressing 3

1.3 Practice of Uniaxial Compaction 19

1.4 Practice of Isostatic Compaction 25

1.5 Granulation of Ceramic Powders 29

References 34

2 Tape Casting 39
Andreas Roosen

2.1 Use of the Tape Casting Process 39

2.2 Process Variations 41

2.3 Tape Casting Process 42

2.4 Components of the Slurry 44

2.5 Preparation of the Slurry and its Properties 51

2.6 Tape Casting 52

2.7 Machining, Metallization, and Lamination 55

2.8 Binder Burnout 56

2.9 Firing 56

2.10 Summary 58

References 58

3 Hydrothermal Routes to Advanced Ceramic Powders and Materials 63
Wojciech L. Suchanek and Richard E. Riman

3.1 Introduction to Hydrothermal Synthesis 63

3.2 Engineering Ceramic Synthesis in Hydrothermal Solution 69

3.3 Materials Chemistry of Hydrothermal Ceramic Powders 74

3.4 Ceramics Processed from Hydrothermally Synthesized Powders 80

3.5 Summary 88

References 88

4 Liquid Feed-Flame Spray Pyrolysis (LF-FSP) in the Synthesis of Single- and Mixed-Metal Oxide Nanopowders 97
Richard M. Laine

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 Basic Concepts of Nanopowder Formation During LF-FSP 100

4.3 Can Nanoparticles Be Prepared That Consist of Mixed Phases? 104

4.4 Which Particle Morphologies Can be Accessed? 107

4.5 Can Nanopowders Be Doped? 110

References 116

5 Sol–Gel Processing of Ceramics 121
Nicola Hüsing

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Principles of Sol–Gel Processing 122

5.3 Porous Materials 126

5.4 Hybrid Materials 130

5.5 Bioactive Sol–Gel Materials 133

References 137

Part II Densification and Beyond 141

6 Sintering 143
Suk-Joong L. Kang

6.1 Sintering Phenomena 143

6.2 Solid-State Sintering 144

6.3 Liquid-Phase Sintering 156

6.4 Summary 164

References 165

7 Hot Isostatic Pressing and Gas-Pressure Sintering 171
Michael J. Hoffmann, Stefan Fünfschilling, and Deniz Kahraman

7.1 Introduction 171

7.2 Sintering Mechanisms with Applied Pressure 172

7.3 Silicon Nitride Ceramics: Comparison of Capsule HIP and Sinter-HIP Technology 175

7.4 Other Applications 182

References 185

8 Hot Pressing and Spark Plasma Sintering 189
Mats Nygren and Zhijian Shen

8.1 Introduction 189

8.2 Advantages of Sintering Under a Uniaxial Pressure 190

8.3 Conventional Hot Presses 193

8.4 SPS Set-Up 194

8.5 Unique Features and Advantages of the SPS Process 196

8.6 The Role of High Pressure 197

8.7 The Role of Rapid and Effective Heating 199

8.8 The Role of Pulsed Direct Current 202

8.9 Microstructural Prototyping by SPS 203

8.10 Potential Industrial Applications 213

References 213

9 Fundamentals and Methods of Ceramic Joining 215
K. Scott Weil

9.1 Introduction 215

9.2 Basic Phenomena in Ceramic Joining 216

9.3 Methods of Joining 227

9.4 Conclusions 243

References 243

10 Machining and Finishing of Ceramics 247
Eckart Uhlmann, Gregor Hasper, Thomas Hoghé, Christoph Hübert, Vanja Mihotovic, and Christoph Sammler

10.1 Introduction 247

10.2 Face and Profile Grinding 248

10.3 Current Status and Future Prospects 251

10.4 Double-Face Grinding with Planetary Kinematics 252

10.5 Ultrasonic-Assisted Grinding 256

10.6 Abrasive Flow Machining 261

10.7 Outlook 264

References 265

Part III Films and Coatings 267

11 Vapor-Phase Deposition of Oxides 269
Lambert Alff, Andreas Klein, Philipp Komissinskiy, and Jose Kurian

11.1 Introduction 269

11.2 Summary 289

References 289

12 Metal–Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Metal Oxide Films and Nanostructures 291
Sanjay Mathur, Aadesh Pratap Singh, Ralf Müller, Tessa Leuning, Thomas Lehnen, and Hao Shen

12.1 Introduction 291

12.2 Metal Oxide Film Deposition 300

12.3 The Precursor Concept in CVD 313

12.4 Metal Oxide Coatings 321

12.5 Summary 327

References 330

Part IV Manufacturing Technology 337

13 Powder Characterization 339
Wolfgang Sigmund, Vasana Maneeratana, and Shu-Hau Hsu

13.1 Introduction 339

13.2 Chemical Composition and Surface Characterization 343

13.3 Particle Sizing and Data Interpretation 354

13.4 Physical Properties 363

13.5 Summary 367

References 367

14 Process Defects 369
Keizo Uematsu

14.1 Introduction 369

14.2 Bulk Examination Methods 370

14.3 Characterization Methods for Green Compact 371

14.4 Process Defects in Ceramics 375

References 393

15 Nonconventional Polymers in Ceramic Processing: Thermoplastics and Monomers 395
John W. Halloran

15.1 Introduction: Ceramic Green Bodies as Filled Polymers 395

15.2 Thermoplastics in Ceramic Processing 396

15.3 A Brief Review of Thermoplastics Used in Ceramic Forming 397

15.4 Melt Spinning of Fibers 397

15.5 Single-Component Extrusion and ‘‘Plastics Processing’’ 398

15.6 Thermoplastic Green Machining 400

15.7 Thermoplastic Coextrusion 401

15.8 Crystallinity in Thermoplastics 403

15.9 Compounding Thermoplastic Blends 404

15.10 Volumetric Changes in Thermoplastic–Ceramic Compounds 405

15.11 Polymer Formation by Polymerization of Suspensions in Monomers 407

15.12 Summary 410

References 411

16 Manufacturing Technology: Rapid Prototyping 415
James D. McGuffin-Cawley

16.1 Introduction 415

16.2 Outline of Ceramic Processing 418

16.3 Solid Freeform Fabrication 422

16.4 Additive Prototyping Processes 422

16.5 Sheet-Based Processes 427

16.6 Formative Prototyping Methods 427

16.7 Casting Methods 428

16.8 Plastic-Forming Methods 428

16.9 Subtractive Methods 429

16.10 Examples of SFF 429

16.11 Summary 432

References 432

Part V Alternative Strategies to Ceramics 439

17 Sintering of Nanograin Ceramics 441
I.-Wei Chen and Xiaohui Wang

17.1 Introduction 441

17.2 Background: What Went Wrong With Conventional Thinking? 442

17.3 Two-Step Sintering of Y2O3 445

17.4 Two-Step Sintering of Other Ceramics 451

17.5 Conclusions 453

References 454

18 Polymer-Derived Ceramics 457
Emanuel Ionescu

18.1 Introduction 457

18.2 Preceramic Polymers 457

18.3 Polymer-to-Ceramic Transformation 459

18.4 Processing Techniques for PDCs 462

18.5 High-Temperature Behavior of PDCs 470

18.6 Electrical Properties of PDCs 478

18.7 Magnetic Properties of PDCs 481

18.8 Polymer-Derived Ceramic Membranes 483

18.9 Microfabrication of PDC-Based Components for MEMS Applications 485

18.10 Summary and Outlook 491

References 492

19 High-Pressure Routes to Ceramics 501
Dmytro A. Dzivenko and Ralf Riedel

19.1 Introduction 501

19.2 Static High-Pressure Techniques 502

19.3 Shock-Wave Techniques 508

19.4 Synthesis of Cubic Silicon Nitride 511

References 513

Index 519

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Prof. Riedel has been Professor at the Institute of Materials Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology in Darmstadt since 1993. He received a Diploma degree in chemistry in 1984 and he finished his dissertation in Inorganic Chemistry in 1986 at the University of Stuttgart. After postdoctoral research at the Max-Planck-Institute for Metals Research and the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Stuttgart he completed his habilitation in the field of Inorganic Chemistry in 1992. Prof. Riedel is Fellow of the American Ceramic Society and was awarded with the Dionyz Stur Gold Medal for merits in natural sciences. He is a member of the World Academy of Ceramics and Guest Professor at the Jiangsu University in Zhenjiang, China. In 2006 he received an honorary doctorate from the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia. In 2009 he was awarded with an honorary professorship at the Tianjin University in China. He published more than 300 papers and patents and he is widely known for his research in the field of polymer derived ceramics and on ultra high pressure synthesis of new materials.

I-Wei Chen is currently Skirkanich Professor of Materials Innovation at the University of Pennsylvania since 1997, where he also gained his master's degree in 1975. He received his bachelor's degree in physics from Tsinghua University, Taiwan, in 1972, and earned his doctorate in metallurgy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1980. He taught at the University of Michigan (Materials) during 1986-1997 and MIT (Nuclear Engineering; Materials) during 1980-1986. He began ceramic research studying martensitic transformations in zirconia nano crystals, which led to work on transformation plasticity, superplasticity, fatigue, grain growth and sintering in various oxides and nitrides. He is currently interested in nanotechnology of ferroelectrics, thin film memory devices, and nano particles for biomedical applications. A Fellow of American Ceramic Society (1991) and recipient of its Ross Coffin Purdy Award (1994), Edward C. Henry Award (1999) and Sosman Award (2006), he authored over 90 papers in the Journal of the American Ceramic Society (1986-2006). He also received Humboldt Research Award for Senior U.S. Scientists (1997).

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by Ralf Riedel (Editor), I-Wei Chen (Editor)
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