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High Temperature Strain of Metals and Alloys: Physical Fundamentals

ISBN: 978-3-527-31338-9
180 pages
January 2006
High Temperature Strain of Metals and Alloys: Physical Fundamentals (3527313389) cover image
Creep and fatigue are the most prevalent causes of rupture in superalloys, which are important materials for industrial usage, e.g. in engines and turbine blades in aerospace or in energy producing industries. As temperature increases, atom mobility becomes appreciable, affecting a number of metal and alloy properties. It is thus vital to find new characterization methods that allow an understanding of the fundamental physics of creep in these materials as well as in pure metals.
Here, the author shows how new in situ X-ray investigations and transmission electron microscope studies lead to novel explanations of high-temperature deformation and creep in pure metals, solid solutions and superalloys. This unique approach is the first to find unequivocal and quantitative expressions for the macroscopic deformation rate by means of three groups of parameters: substructural characteristics, physical material constants and external conditions.
Creep strength of the studied up-to-date single crystal superalloys is greatly increased over conventional polycrystalline superalloys.

From the contents:

- Macroscopic characteristics of strain at high temperatures
- Experimental equipment and technique of in situ X-ray investigations
- Experimental data and structural parameters in deformed metals
- Subboundaries as dislocation sources and obstacles
- The physical mechanism of creep and the quantitative structural model
- Simulation of the parameters evolution
- System of differential equations
- High-temperature deformation of industrial superalloys
- Single crystals of superalloys
- Effect of composition, orientation and temperature on properties
- Creep of some refractory metals

For materials scientists, solid state physicists, solid state chemists, researchers and practitioners from industry sectors including metallurgical, mechanical, chemical and structural engineers.
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Preface
Introduction
MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF STRAIN OF METALLIC MATERIALS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES
THE EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES OF THE X-RAY INVESTIGATIONS OF METALS DIRECTLY DURING HIGH-TEMPERATURE TESTS
Experimental Installation
Measurements of Structural Parameters
Diffraction Electron Microscopy
Amplitude of Atomic Vibrations
Materials under Investigation
STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEFORMED METALS. EXPERIMENTAL DATA
Evolution of Structural Parameters
Distances between Dislocations in Subboundaries
Subgrains as Dislocation Sources and Obstacles
Dislocations inside Subgrains. Vacancy Loops and Helicoids
Total Combination of Structural Peculiarities of High-Temperature Deformation
THE PHYSICAL MECHANISM AND THE STRUCTURAL MODEL OF DEFORMATION AT HIGH TEMPERATURES
Physical Model and Theory
Velocity of Dislocations
Dislocation Density
Rate of the Macroscopic Stationary Creep
Effect of Alloying. Relationship between Heat-resistance and Mean-square Atomic Amplitudes
MODELLING OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE PARAMETERS EVOLUTION AND OF THE DEFORMATION PROCESSES. SYSTEM OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS FOR THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE STRAIN
HIGH-TEMPERATURE DEFORMATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF REFRACTORY METALS
DEFORMATION OF THE HEAT-RESISTANT INDUSTRIAL ALLOYS
Long-time Strength (Durability) of the Heat-resistant Single-crystals. Effect of Orientation on Heat Resistance
Connection between Mean-square Amplitudes of Atomic Vibrations and the Strain Resistance
Changes in Matrix of Alloys
Interaction between Dislocations and Particles of Hardening Phase
Dependence of Creep Rate on Stress. Length of the Activated Dislocation Segments
Mechanism of Strain and the Creep Rate Equation
Index
References
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Professor Valim Levitin is the Head of an internationally renowned Research Group at the National Technical University in Ukraine. His work focusses on problems of atom vibrations in solids, work function, physical bases of creep and fatigue and X-ray and TEM studies of the fundamentals of materials strength.
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"...the book will be of great interest for materials scientists, solid state physicists, solid state chemists, researchers and practitioners from industry sectors including metallurgical, mechanical, chemical and structural engineers."
METALL
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