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Modern Drying Technology, Volume 5: Process Intensification

ISBN: 978-3-527-31560-4
406 pages
March 2014
Modern Drying Technology, Volume 5: Process Intensification (3527315608) cover image


The five-volume series provides a comprehensive overview of all important aspects of drying technology like computational tools at different scales (Volume 1), modern experimental and analytical techniques (Volume 2), product quality and formulation (Volume 3), energy savings (Volume 4) and process intensification (Volume 5).

Based on high-level cutting-edge results contributed by internationally recognized experts in the various treated fields, this book series is the ultimate reference in the area of industrial drying. Located at the intersection of the two main approaches in modern chemical engineering, product engineering and process systems engineering, the series aims at bringing theory into practice in order to improve the quality of high-value dried products, save energy, and cut the costs of drying processes.

Volume 5 is dedicated to process intensification by more efficient distribution and flow of the drying medium, foaming, controlled freezing, and the application of superheated steam, infrared radiation, microwaves, power ultrasound and pulsed electric fields. Process efficiency is treated in conjunction with the quality of sensitive products, such as foods, for a variety of hybrid and combined drying processes.


Other Volumes and Sets:

Volume 1 - Modern Drying Technology, Computational Tools at Different Scales

Volume 1: Diverse model types for the drying of products and the design of drying processes (short-cut methods, homogenized, pore network, and continuous thermo-mechanical approaches) are treated, along with computational fluid dynamics, population balances, and process systems simulation tools. Emphasis is put on scale transitions.


Volume 2 - Modern Drying Technology: Experimental Techniques

Volume 2: Comprises experimental methods used in various industries and in research in order to design and control drying processes, measure moisture and moisture distributions, characterize particulate material and the internal micro-structure of dried products, and investigate the behavior of particle systems in drying equipment. Key topics include acoustic levitation, near-infrared spectral imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray tomography, and positron emission tracking.


Volume 3 - Modern Drying Technology: Product Quality and Formulation

Volume 3: Discusses how desired properties of foods, biomaterials, active pharmaceutical ingredients, and fragile aerogels can be preserved during drying, and how spray drying and spray fluidized bed processes can be used for particle formation and formulation. Methods for monitoring product quality, such as process analytical technology, and modeling tools, such as Monte Carlo simulations, discrete particle modeling and neural networks, are presented with real examples from industry and academia.


Volume 4 - Modern Drying Technology: Energy Savings

Volume 4: Deals with the reduction of energy demand in various drying processes and areas, highlighting the following topics: Energy analysis of dryers, efficient solid-liquid separation techniques, osmotic dehydration, heat pump assisted drying, zeolite usage, solar drying, drying and heat treatment for solid wood and other biomass sources, and sludge thermal processing.

Available in print as 5 Volume Set or as individual volumes. Buy the Set and SAVE 30%!

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Table of Contents

Series Preface XI

Preface of Volume 5 XV

List of Contributors XIX

Recommended Notation XXIII

EFCE Working Party on Drying: Address List XXIX

1 Impinging Jet Drying 1
Eckehard Specht

1.1 Application 1

1.2 Single Nozzle 4

1.3 Nozzle Fields 7

1.3.1 Arrays of Single Nozzles 7

1.3.2 Hole Channels 12

1.3.3 Perforated Plates 13

1.3.4 Nozzles for Cylindrical Bodies 14

1.4 Summary of the Nusselt Functions 16

1.5 Design of Nozzle Field 17

1.6 Conclusion 23

References 24

2 Pulse Combustion Drying 27
Ireneusz Zbicinski, Tadeusz Kudra, and Xiangdong Liu

2.1 Principle of Pulse Combustion 27

2.2 Pulse Combustors: Design and Operation 32

2.2.1 Pulse Combustors with Mechanical Valves 32

2.2.2 Pulse Combustors with Aerodynamic Valves 34

2.2.3 Frequency-Tunable Pulsed Combustors 35

2.3 Aerodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer 36

2.3.1 Atomization 37

2.3.2 Heat and Mass Transfer 38

2.4 Modeling of Pulse Combustion Drying 42

2.5 Pulse Combustion in Drying 48

References 53

3 Superheated Steam Drying of Foods and Biomaterials 57
Sakamon Devahastin and Arun S. Mujumdar

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Principle of Superheated Steam Drying (SSD) 58

3.3 Atmospheric-Pressure Superheated Steam Drying 61

3.4 Low-Pressure Superheated Steam Drying (LPSSD) 69

3.5 Application of LPSSD to Improve the Quality of Foods and Biomaterials 76

3.6 Concluding Remarks 82

References 83

4 Intensification of Fluidized-Bed Processes for Drying and Formulation 85
Evangelos Tsotsas, Stefan Heinrich, Michael Jacob, Mirko Peglow, and Lothar M€orl

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Intensification by Apparatus and Flow Design 86

4.2.1 Different Types of Spouted Bed 86

4.2.2 Operating Characteristics of Spouted Beds 93

4.2.3 Mass and Heat Transfer in ProCell Units 100

4.2.4 Discrete Particle Modeling 107

4.3 Intensification by Contact Heating 112

4.3.1 General Principle 112

4.3.2 Main Effects and Influences 114

4.3.3 Further Remarks on Modeling 121

4.4 Further Methods of Intensification 126

4.5 Conclusion 127

References 128

5 Intensification of Freeze-Drying for the Pharmaceutical and Food Industries 131
Roberto Pisano, Davide Fissore, and Antonello A. Barresi

5.1 Introduction 131

5.2 Exergetic Analysis (and Optimization) of the Freeze-Drying Process 133

5.3 Process Intensification in Vacuum Freeze-Drying of Liquids 139

5.3.1 Regulation of Nucleation Temperature During Freezing 140

5.3.2 Use of Organic Solvents and Cosolvents 144

5.4 Atmospheric Freeze-Drying 146

5.5 Use of Combined Technologies for Drying Heat-Sensitive Products 150

5.5.1 Microwave-Assisted Drying 150

5.5.2 Ultrasound-Assisted Drying 152

5.6 Continuous Freeze-Drying 154

5.7 Conclusions 155

References 157

6 Drying of Foamed Materials 163
Ireneusz Zbicinski, Julia Rabaeva, and Artur Lewandowski

6.1 Introduction 163

6.2 Foam Properties 164

6.3 Foam Spray Drying 167

6.3.1 Processing Principles 167

6.3.2 Final Product Properties 172

6.4 Foam-Mat Drying 181

6.5 Summary 187

References 188

7 Process-Induced Minimization of Mass Transfer Barriers for Improved Drying 191
Henry J€ager, Katharina Sch€ossler, and Dietrich Knorr

7.1 Introduction 191

7.2 Structural Characterization of Plant Raw Materials and Impact of PEF and Ultrasound 192

7.2.1 Methods for Analysis of Tissue Structure and Quantification of Cell Damage 192

7.2.2 PEF: Principles and Impact on Plant Tissue Structure 195 Introduction to PEF Technology 195 PEF: Impact on Plant Tissue Structure 196

7.2.3 Ultrasound: Principles and Impact on Plant Tissue Structure 199 Introduction to Ultrasound Technology 199 Ultrasound: Impact on Plant Tissue Structure 200

7.3 Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Application as a Pretreatment 204

7.3.1 Osmotic Dehydration 205

7.3.2 Air Drying 206

7.3.3 Impact of PEF on Freezing and Freeze-Drying Behavior of Raw Materials 208

7.3.4 Quality Characteristics Affected by PEF Pretreatment 211

7.4 Contact Ultrasound for Combined Drying Processes 216

7.4.1 Ultrasound in Osmotic Dehydration 217

7.4.2 Contact Ultrasound in Air Drying 218

7.4.3 Contact Ultrasound in Freeze-Drying 221

7.4.4 Quality Characteristics Affected by Ultrasound-Combined Drying Processes 224

7.5 Conclusion 226

References 230

8 Drying Assisted by Power Ultrasound 237
Juan Andres Carcel, Jose Vicente García-Perez, Enrique Riera, Carmen Rossello, and Antonio Mulet

8.1 Introduction 237

8.2 Ultrasound 239

8.2.1 Ultrasound Waves 239 Power 239 Frequency 240 Attenuation 240 Acoustic Impedance 240

8.2.2 Effects of Ultrasound on Mass Transfer 241

8.3 Ultrasonic Equipment 242

8.3.1 Source of Energy 243

8.3.2 Transducers 243

8.3.3 Application Systems 245 Treatments in Liquid Media 245 Treatments in Gas Media 247

8.4 Influence of the Main Process Variables on Drying Intensification by Ultrasound 250

8.4.1 Ultrasonic Power Applied 250 Ultrasonic Field Measurements 251 Ultrasonic Intensity and Effects 252 Influence of the Characteristics of the Medium on Ultrasonic Intensity 258

8.4.2 Drying Air Temperature 263

8.4.3 Ultrasound–Sample Interaction 266

8.5 Conclusions 272

References 273

9 Microwave-Assisted Drying of Foods – Equipment, Process and Product Quality 279
Yingqiang Wang, Min Zhang, and Arun S. Mujumdar

9.1 Introduction 279

9.2 Microwave-Assisted Drying of Foods 281

9.2.1 Basic Principles of Microwave-Assisted Drying 281

9.2.2 Energy Absorption by Products During Dielectric Heating 283

9.2.3 Dielectric Properties 283

9.2.4 Penetration Depth 285

9.3 Microwave-Assisted Drying Equipment 285

9.3.1 Microwave-Assisted Convective Drying Equipment 286

9.3.2 Microwave-Assisted Vacuum Drying Equipment 287

9.3.3 Microwave-Assisted Freeze-Drying Equipment 290

9.3.4 Microwave-Assisted Spouted Bed Drying Equipment 291

9.4 Microwave-Assisted Drying Process 292

9.4.1 Moisture Loss 293

9.4.2 Temperature Distributions 295 Temperature Variations at Fixed Levels of Microwave Power 296 Temperature Variations at Variable Microwave Power without Controlling Temperature 298 Temperature Change with Time-Adjusted Power in Feedback Temperature Control 299

9.4.3 Energy Consumption 299

9.4.4 Dielectric Breakdown 302

9.4.5 Changes in Dielectric Properties 304

9.4.6 Quality Changes in Food during Microwave-Assisted Drying 305

9.5 Microwave-Assisted Drying Process Control and Optimal Operation 308

9.5.1 Factors Controlling Microwave-Assisted Drying Processes 308

9.5.2 Optimal Operation Strategy 308

9.6 Concluding Remarks 310

References 312

10 Infrared Drying 317
German Efremov

10.1 Introduction 317

10.2 Radiation Heat Transfer 318

10.2.1 General Principles 318

10.2.2 Reflection, Absorption, and Transmission 319

10.2.3 Infrared Spectrum 321

10.3 Classification, Research, and Applications of Radiation Drying 323

10.3.1 Classification 323

10.3.2 Solar Drying 325

10.3.3 Infrared Drying 326

10.3.4 Catalytic Infrared Drying 329

10.4 Types of Radiators 332

10.4.1 General Considerations 332

10.4.2 Electric Radiators 333

10.4.3 Gas-Heated IR Radiators 335

10.5 Interaction between Matter and Infrared Radiation 337

10.5.1 General Relationships 337

10.5.2 Radiation Properties of Materials 339

10.6 Kinetics of Infrared Drying 342

10.7 Infrared Drying Combined with other Types of Drying 345

10.7.1 IR and Convective Drying 346

10.7.2 IR and Microwave Drying 347

10.7.3 IR and Freeze-Drying 348

10.7.4 IR with other Types of Drying 348

10.8 Conclusions 351

References 352

Index 357

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Author Information

Professor Dr. Ing. Evangelos Tsotsas born 1959, Thessaloniki/Greece; PhD: 1985, Karlsruhe/Germany; Habilitation: 1990, Karlsruhe; till 1994: The Dow Chemical Company; since 1994: Professor of Thermal Process Engineering at Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg; 1998-2002: Dean of the Faculty of Process and Systems Engineering; elected German Research Council (DFG) reviewer, member of the selection committee of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, the European Multiphase Systems Institute, and the International Center of Heat and Mass Transfer; Chairman of Working Parties on Drying of the EFCE and GVC; 2002: Award for innovation in drying research.

Professor Arun S. Mujumdar; PhD McGill University, Montreal; Professor of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, until July 2000; Visiting Professor at numerous universities; Honorary Professor of five universities in China; President and Principal Consultant, Exergex Corp., Canada 1989-2000; consultant for over 60 companies; authored 2 books and over 60 book chapters, edited or co-edited over 50 books and journals; published more than 300 research papers, presented over 200 conference papers; external reviewer for various research councils; founder, chair or member of organizing panels for numerous major international conferences; elected Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Chemical Institute of Canada and Inst. Chem. Eng. (India); member of AIChE, CPPA, Sigma Xi; awarded Senior Fellowship by Japan Society for Promotion of Science (1988 and 1996), Innovation in Drying Award, IDS '86, MIT, The Procter & Gamble Award for Excellence in Drying Research (1998); named Distinguished Scientists of the 20th Century, International Man of the Year by International Biographical Institute, Cambridge (1999); listed in 1000 World Leaders of Influence by the American Biographical Institute, Raleigh, USA (2000).
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by Evangelos Tsotsas (Editor), Arun S. Mujumdar (Editor)
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