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Amino Group Chemistry: From Synthesis to the Life Sciences

Alfredo Ricci (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-31741-7
408 pages
January 2008
Amino Group Chemistry: From Synthesis to the Life Sciences (3527317414) cover image

Description

Here, probably the most important functional group in organic chemistry is discussed in one handy volume. The monograph covers its application -- from natural products to synthetic pharmaceuticals -- detailing complex syntheses using the amino group as templates and modern techniques focussing on the introduction of the amino group. A definitive must-have for every chemist.
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Table of Contents

Preface XI

List of Contributors XIII

1 Simple Molecules, Highly Effi cient Amination 1
Shunsuke Chiba and Koichi Narasaka

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Hydroxylamine Derivatives 1

1.2.1 O-Sulfonylhydroxylamine 1

1.2.2 O-Phosphinylhydroxylamine 4

1.2.3 O-Acylhydroxylamine 5

1.2.4 O-Trimethylsilylhydroxylamine 6

1.2.5 Experimental Procedures 7

1.3 Oxime Derivatives 9

1.3.1 Synthesis of Primary Amines by Electrophilic Amination of Carbanions 9

1.3.2 Experimental Procedures 13

1.4 Azo Compounds 15

1.4.1 Azodicarboxylates 15

1.4.1.1 Allylic Amination through Ene-Type Reactions 15

1.4.1.2 Hydrohydrazination of Alkenes 16

1.4.2 Arylazo Sulfones 19

1.4.3 Experimental Procedures 20

1.5 Oxaziridine Derivatives 23

1.5.1 Electrophilic Amination of Carbon Nucleophiles 23

1.5.2 Amination of Allylic and Propargylic Sulfi des by Use of a Ketomalonate-Derived Oxaziridine 23

1.5.3 Experimental Procedures 25

1.6 Chloramine-T 26

1.6.1 Aminochalcogenation of Alkenes 26

1.6.2 Aminohydroxylation of Alkenes 26

1.6.3 Aziridination of Alkenes 27

1.6.4 Other Applications 32

1.6.5 Experimental Procedures 34

1.7 N-Sulfonyliminophenyliodinane 35

1.7.1 Transition Metal-Catalyzed Amination of Alkenes 36

1.7.2 Experimental Procedures 37

1.8 Transition Metal-Nitride Complexes 38

1.8.1 Nitrogen Atom Transfer Mediated by Transition Metal/Nitride Complexes 38

1.8.2 Experimental Procedures 39

1.9 Azido Derivatives 41

1.9.1 Electrophilic Amination of Organometallic Reagents with Organic Azides 42

1.9.2 Radical-Mediated Amination with Sulfonyl Azides 43

1.9.3 Hydroazidation of Alkenes with Sulfonyl Azides 43

1.9.4 Experimental Procedures 44

1.10 Gabriel-Type Reagents 46

1.10.1 Nucleophilic Amination Reactions 46

1.10.2 Experimental Procedure 49

1.11 Conclusion 50

2 Catalytic C-H Amination with Nitrenes 55
Philippe Dauban and Robert H. Dodd

2.1 Introduction 55

2.2 Historical Overview 56

2.3 Hypervalent Iodine-Mediated C−H Amination 60

2.3.1 Intramolecular C−H Amination 60

2.3.1.1 From NH2 Carbamates 60

2.3.1.2 From NH2 Sulfamates 62

2.3.1.3 From Other Nitrogen Functionalities 65

2.3.2 Intermolecular C−H Amination 67

2.3.2.1 General Scope and Limitations 67

2.3.2.2 Recent Major Improvements 70

2.4 Other Nitrene Precursors for C−H Amination 73

2.4.1 Azides 73

2.4.2 Haloamines 74

2.4.3 Carbamate Derivatives 76

2.5 Amination of Aromatic C−H Bonds 77

2.6 Applications in Total Synthesis 80

2.6.1 Application of Intramolecular C−H Amination with Carbamates 80

2.6.2 Application of Intramolecular C−H Amination with Sulfamates 83

2.6.3 Application of Intermolecular C−H Amination 87

2.7 Conclusions 88

3 Nitroalkenes as Amination Tools 93
Roberto Ballini, Enrico Marcantoni, and Marino Petrini

3.1 Introduction 93

3.2 General Strategies for the Synthesis of Nitroalkenes 93

3.3 Synthesis of Alkylamines 95

3.3.1 Monoamines 95

3.3.2 Amino Acid Derivatives 98

3.3.3 Amino Alcohols 103

3.3.4 Diamino Derivatives 106

3.4 Pyrrolidine Derivatives 112

3.4.1 Pyrrolidinones 112

3.4.2 Pyrrolidines 115

3.5 Piperidines and Piperazines 124

3.6 Pyrrolizidines and Related Derivatives 126

3.7 Arene-Fused Nitrogen Heterocycles 132

3.7.1 Pyrroloindole Derivatives 132

3.7.2 Carbolines and their Tryptamine Precursors 132

3.7.3 Arene-Fused Piperidine Compounds 135

3.8 Other Polycyclic Derivatives 140

3.9 Conclusion 144

4 Isocyanide-Based Multicomponent Reactions (IMCRs) as a Valuable Tool with which to Synthesize Nitrogen-Containing Compounds 149
Alexander Doemling

4.1 Introduction 149

4.2 The Ugi Reaction 152

4.2.1 Intramolecular Ugi Reactions Involving Two Functional Groups 158

4.2.2 The Ugi Reaction and Secondary Transformations 166

4.3 Passerini Reaction 171

4.4 van Leusen Reaction 175

4.5 Other IMCRs 177

4.6 Outlook 180

5 Direct Catalytic Asymmetric Mannich Reactions and Surroundings 185
Armando Córdova and Ramon Rios

5.1 Introduction 185

5.2 Organometallic Catalysts 186

5.3 Metal-Free Organocatalysis 191

5.4 Conclusions 201

6 Amino-Based Building Blocks for the Construction of Biomolecules 207
André Mann

6.1 Introduction 207

6.2 Propargylamines (PLAs) 208

6.2.1 Synthesis of PLAs 209

6.2.2 PLAs in Synthesis 211

6.2.2.1 PLAs in the Synthesis of Heterocycles 211

6.2.2.2 PLAs in Pd(0)-Catalyzed Processes 211

6.2.2.3 PLAs in Pericyclic Reactions 213

6.2.2.4 PLAs in Multicomponent Reactions (MCRs) 215

6.2.2.5 PLA in Radical Reactions 217

6.3 trans-4-Hydroxy-(S)-proline (HYP) 217

6.3.1 Structural Transformations of HYP 218

6.3.1.1 C-4 Alkylation of HYP 218

6.3.1.2 C-4 Fluorination and Fluoroalkylation of HYP 218

6.3.1.3 C-3 Functionalization of HYP 221

6.3.2 HYP in the Synthesis of Biomolecules 221

6.3.2.1 HYP in the Synthesis of Alkaloids 221

6.3.2.2 HYP in the Synthesis of Kainic Acid Derivatives 222

6.3.2.3 HYP in the Synthesis of Amino Sugars 222

6.3.2.4 Hepatitis C Inhibitors 224

6.4 L-Serine (SER) 224

6.4.1 SER and SER Derivatives in the Synthesis of Biomolecules 225

6.4.1.1 SER in the Synthesis of Carbolines 225

6.4.1.2 SER in the Synthesis of Furanomycin 226

6.4.1.3 SER in the Synthesis of Diketopiperazine Alkaloids 226

6.4.1.4 SER in the Synthesis of Cleomycin 226

6.4.1.5 SER in the Synthesis of Piperidine Alkaloids 228

6.4.1.6 SER in the Synthesis of Nonproteinogenic Amino Acids 228

6.4.1.7 SER in the Synthesis of , ’-Diaminoacids 229

6.4.1.8 SER in the Synthesis of Rigidifi ed Glutamic Acid 230

6.5 4-Methoxypyridine (MOP) 230

6.5.1 MOP in the Synthesis of Biomolecules 231

6.5.1.1 MOP in the Synthesis of Alkaloids 231

6.5.1.2 MOP in the Synthesis of Plumerinine 232

6.5.1.3 MOP in the Synthesis of 2,4-Disubstituted Piperidines 234

6.5.1.4 MOP in the Synthesis of Toxins 234

6.5.1.5 MOP in the Synthesis of Tropanes 235

6.6 Aziridines (AZIs) 236

6.6.1 AZIs in the Synthesis of Biomolecules 236

6.6.1.1 AZIs in the Synthesis of 1,2-Diamines 236

6.6.1.2 AZIs in the Synthesis of -Amino Acids 237

6.6.1.3 AZI in the Synthesis of Ferruginine, an Acetylcholine Receptor 238

6.6.1.4 AZIs in the Synthesis of Tryptophan Derivatives 238

6.6.1.5 AZIs in the Synthesis of Functionalized Piperidines 239

6.6.1.6 An AZI in the Synthesis of the Alkaloid Pumiliotoxin 240

6.6.1.7 An AZI in the Synthesis of Phenylkainic Acid 240

6.6.1.8 AZIs in the Synthesis of Pseudodistomin Alkaloids 241

6.7 Homoallylamine (HAM) 242

6.7.1 Synthesis of HAMs 242

6.7.2 HAMs in the Synthesis of Biomolecules 243

6.7.2.1 HAM in the Synthesis of Imidazoazepines 243

6.7.2.2 HAMs in the Synthesis of Alkaloids 244

6.7.2.3 HAMs in the Synthesis of Piperidine Derivatives 246

6.7.2.4 HAMs in the Synthesis of Chiral Heterocycles 247

6.8 Indole (IND) 247

6.8.1 Synthesis of Indoles 248

6.8.2 INDs in the Synthesis of Biomolecules 251

6.9 Conclusion 252

7 Aminated Sugars, Synthesis, and Biological Activity 257
Francesco Nicotra, Barbara La Ferla, and Cristina Airoldi

7.1 Biological Relevance of Aminated Sugars 257

7.1.1 N-Acetylneuraminic Acid 257

7.1.2 Sialyl Lewis X 258

7.1.3 Tumor-Associated Antigens 259

7.1.4 Chitin and Chitosan 260

7.1.5 Bacterial Polysaccharides 260

7.1.6 Glycosaminoglycans 261

7.1.7 Iminosugars 262

7.1.8 Sugar Amino Acids 264

7.2 Synthesis of Aminated Sugars 266

7.2.1 Amination at the Anomeric Center 266

7.2.1.1 Amination Exploiting Carbonyl Reactivity 267

7.2.1.2 Amination Exploiting Oxonium Ion Reactivity 270

7.2.2 Amination in the Sugar Chain 273

7.2.2.1 Amino Sugars by Nucleophilic Displacement 273

7.2.2.2 Amino Sugars through Intramolecular Displacements 279

7.2.2.3 Amino Sugars by Reductive Amination 279

7.2.3 Amination of Glycals 283

7.2.4 Amination through Ring-Opening of Epoxides 287

7.3 Synthesis of Iminosugars 288

7.3.1 Amination at the Anomeric center with Subsequent Cyclization 290

7.3.1.1 Exploitation of the Reactivity of the Carbonyl Function 290

7.3.1.2 Exploitation of the Reactivity of Lactones 291

7.3.1.3 Insertion of a New Electrophile 292

7.3.2 Amination at the Carbohydrate Chain and Subsequent Cyclization 293

7.3.3 Concomitant Insertion of Nitrogen at Both Carbon Atoms 297

7.4 Conclusions 300

8 Selective N-Derivatization of Aminoglycosides en Route to New Antibiotics and Antivirals 305
Floris Louis van Delft

8.1 Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 305

8.2 RNA Targeting by Aminoglycosides 308

8.3 The Role of Amino Functions in RNA Binding 310

8.4 Development of RNA-Targeting Drugs 312

8.4.1 Regioselective N-Modifi cation of Naturally Occurring Aminoglycosides 313

8.4.2 Neamine-Based RNA ligands 321

8.5 Concluding Remarks 327

9 Evolution of Transition Metal-Catalyzed Amination Reactions: the Industrial Approach 333
Ulrich Scholz

9.1 Introduction: First Steps in the Field of Catalytic Aromatic Amination 333

9.2 Alternatives to Transition Metal-Catalyzed Arylamination 335

9.2.1 Reduction of Nitroarenes 335

9.2.1.1 Transfer Hydrogenation 335

9.2.1.2 Direct Hydrogenation 336

9.2.1.3 Other Methods for Nitro Reductions 336

9.2.2 Transition Metal-Free Alternatives for Amine–Halogen Exchange 337

9.2.2.1 Metal-Free Replacement of Halogens with Amines 337

9.2.2.2 The Chichibabin Reaction 338

9.2.2.3 The Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution of Hydrogen (NASH Reaction) 339

9.2.2.4 Aromatic Amination by Use of Azides 339

9.2.2.5 The Minisci Reaction 340

9.2.2.6 The Bucherer Reaction 340

9.2.2.7 Metal-Free Replacement of Nitro Groups by Amines 341

9.2.2.8 Metal-Free Replacement of Sulfonic Acid Esters by Amines 341

9.3 The Quest for Industrial Applications of Transition Metal-Catalyzed Arylamination 341

9.3.1 Industrial-Scale Halogen–Amine Exchanges 342

9.3.2 Transition Metal-Catalyzed Direct Amination of Aromatic Compounds 345

9.3.3 Industrial-Scale Aminolysis of Phenols 345

9.4 Copper-Catalyzed Processes – More Recent Developments 346

9.4.1 Alternative Arylating Agents 346

9.4.2 Catalyst Tuning 347

9.5 Palladium-Catalyzed Processes 353

9.5.1 Early Developments 353

9.5.2 Ligand Developments 355

9.5.3 Other Components of the Reaction 361

9.6 Nickel-Catalyzed Processes 361

9.7 Summary 363

Index 377

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Author Information

Alfredo Ricci is full professor in Organic Chemistry at the Chemistry Department of the Faculty of Industrial Chemistry (Bologna University). He was appointed in Florence where he spent part of his career covering for many years the roles of Department head and Director of the National Research Council. 1990 he moved to the University of Bologna. Professor Ricci has authored more than 250 scientific publications and received several scientific awards, including the 2000 French-Italian Prize for Synthetic Organic Chemistry and in 2005 the "A. Mangini" Gold Medal. Since 1995 he is member of the 'Honorary Advisory Board' of Synlett and in 2000 served as editor of the Wiley-VCH book "Modern Amination Methods".
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Reviews

"An interested reader or student will rapidly gain insight into approaches to amino groups, while a chemist pursuing synthetic work on these challenging compounds will find numerous examples, procedures, and citations to the primary literature. Recommended. Academic and professional chemistry libraries, all levels." (CHOICE, March 2009)

Readers from any of the fields covered could profit from this browsing this book, enabling concepts from one subject to cross-fertilize another. (Journal of the American Chemical Society, July 2, 2008)

"A definitive must-have for every chemist." (Organic Chemistry Portal Chemistry Books)

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