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Advanced Nanomaterials

ISBN: 978-3-527-31794-3
954 pages
February 2010
Advanced Nanomaterials (3527317945) cover image

Description

In this first comprehensive compilation of review chapters on this hot topic, more than 30 experts from around the world provide in-depth chapters on their specific areas of expertise, covering such essential topics as:
* Block Copolymer Systems, Nanofibers and Nanotubes
* Helical Polymer-Based Supramolecular Films
* Synthesis of Inorganic Nanotubes
* Gold Nanoparticles and Carbon Nanotubes
* Recent Advances in Metal Nanoparticle-Attached Electrodes
* Oxidation Catalysis by Nanoscale Gold, Silver, and Copper
* Concepts in Self-Assembly
* Nanocomposites
* Amphiphilic Poly(Oxyalkylene)-Amines
* Mesoporous Alumina
* Nanoceramics for Medical Applications
* Ecological Toxicology of Engineered Carbon Nanoparticles
* Molecular Imprinting
* Near-Field Raman Imaging of Nanostructures and Devices
* Fullerene-Rich Nanostructures
* Interactions of Carbon Nanotubes with Biomolecules
* Nanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers and Hyperbranched Polymers
* Nanostructured Organogels via Molecular Self-Assembly
* Structural DNA Nanotechnology
With its coverage of all such important areas as self-assembly, polymeric materials, bionanomaterials, nanotubes, photonic and environmental aspects, this is an essential reference for materials scientists, engineers, chemists, physicists and biologists wishing to gain an in-depth knowledge of all the disciplines involved.
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Table of Contents

Preface XV

List of Contributors XVII

Volume 1 1 Phase-Selective Chemistry in Block Copolymer Systems 1
Evan L. Schwartz and Christopher K. Ober

1.1 Block Copolymers as Useful Nanomaterials 1

1.1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.2 Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers 3

1.1.3 Triblock Copolymers 4

1.1.4 Rod–Coil Block Copolymers 7

1.1.5 Micelle Formation 8

1.1.6 Synthesis of Block Copolymers Using Living Polymerization Techniques 9

1.1.7 Post-Polymerization Modifi cations 14

1.2 Block Copolymers as Lithographic Materials 15

1.2.1 Introduction to Lithography 15

1.2.2 Block Copolymers as Nanolithographic Templates 17

1.2.3 Multilevel Resist Strategies Using Block Copolymers 29

1.3 Nanoporous Monoliths Using Block Copolymers 34

1.3.1 Structure Direction Using Block Copolymer Scaffolds 34

1.3.2 Nanopore Size Tunability 36

1.3.3 Functionalized Nanoporous Surfaces 38

1.4 Photo-Crosslinkable Nano-Objects 41

1.5 Block Copolymers as Nanoreactors 44

1.5.1 Polymer–Metal Solubility 44

1.5.2 Cluster Nucleation and Growth 46

1.5.3 Block Copolymer Micelle Nanolithography 47

1.6 Interface-Active Block Copolymers 48

1.6.1 Low-Energy Surfaces Using Fluorinated Block Copolymers 48

1.6.2 Patterning Surface Energies 49

1.6.3 Photoswitchable Surface Energies Using Block Copolymers Containing Azobenzene 51

1.6.4 Light-Active Azobenzene Block Copolymer Vesicles as Drug Delivery Devices 52

1.6.5 Azobenzene-Containing Block Copolymers as Holographic Materials 52

1.7 Summary and Outlook 54

References 60

2 Block Copolymer Nanofibers and Nanotubes 67
Guojun Liu

2.1 Introduction 67

2.2 Preparation 69

2.2.1 Nanofi ber Preparation 69

2.2.2 Nanotube Preparation 72

2.3 Solution Properties 74

2.4 Chemical Reactions 81

2.4.1 Backbone Modifi cation 81

2.4.2 End Functionalization 85

2.5 Concluding Remarks 87

Acknowledgements 88

References 88

3 Smart Nanoassemblies of Block Copolymers for Drug and Gene Delivery 91
Horacio Cabral and Kazunori Kataoka

3.1 Introduction 91

3.2 Smart Nanoassemblies for Drug and Gene Delivery 92

3.3 Endogenous Triggers 93

3.3.1 pH-Sensitive Nanoassemblies 93

3.3.2 Oxidation- and Reduction-Sensitive Polymeric Nanoassemblies 99

3.3.3 Other Endogenous Triggers 101

3.4 External Stimuli 102

3.4.1 Temperature 102

3.4.2 Light 105

3.4.3 Ultrasound 107

3.5 Future Perspectives 108

References 109

4 A Comprehensive Approach to the Alignment and Ordering of Block Copolymer Morphologies 111
Massimo Lazzari and Claudio De Rosa

4.1 Introduction 111

4.1.1 Motivation 111

4.1.2 Organization of the Chapter 112

4.2 How to Help Phase Separation 113

4.3 Orientation by External Fields 116

4.3.1 Mechanical Flow Fields 117

4.3.2 Electric and Magnetic Fields 118

4.3.3 Solvent Evaporation and Thermal Gradient 122

4.4 Templated Self-Assembly on Nanopatterned Surfaces 123

4.5 Epitaxy and Surface Interactions 126

4.5.1 Preferential Wetting and Homogeneous Surface Interactions 126

4.5.2 Epitaxy 128

4.5.3 Directional Crystallization 130

4.5.4 Graphoepitaxy and Other Confi ning Geometries 135

4.5.5 Combination of Directional Crystallization and Graphoepitaxy 138

4.5.6 Combination of Epitaxy and Directional Crystallization 140

4.6 Summary and Outlook 149

Acknowledgments 150

References 150

5 Helical Polymer-Based Supramolecular Films 159
Akihiro Ohira, Michiya Fujiki, and Masashi Kunitake

5.1 Introduction 159

5.2 Helical Polymer-Based 1-D and 2-D Architectures 161

5.2.1 Formation of Various 1-D Architectures of Helical Polysilanes on Surfaces 162

5.2.2 Formation of Mesoscopic 2-D Hierarchical Superhelical Assemblies 167

5.2.3 Formation of 2-D Crystallization of Poly( -L-Glutamates) on Surfaces 172

5.2.4 Summary of Helical Polymer-Based 1-D and 2-D Architectures 176

5.3 Helical Polymer-Based Functional Films 177

5.3.1 Chiroptical Memory and Switch in Helical Polysilane Films 178

5.3.2 Chiroptical Transfer and Amplifi cation in Binary Helical Polysilane Films 185

5.3.3 Summary of Helical Polymer-Based Functional Films 188

Acknowledgments 189

References 190

6 Synthesis of Inorganic Nanotubes 195
C.N.R. Rao and Achutharao Govindaraj

6.1 Introduction 195

6.2 General Synthetic Strategies 196

6.3 Nanotubes of Metals and other Elemental Materials 196

6.4 Metal Chalcogenide Nanotubes 206

6.5 Metal Oxide Nanotubes 214

6.5.1 SiO2 Nanotubes 214

6.5.2 TiO2 Nanotubes 216

6.5.3 ZnO, CdO, and Al2O3 Nanotubes 221

6.5.4 Nanotubes of Vanadium and Niobium Oxides 225

6.5.5 Nanotubes of other Transition Metal Oxides 228

6.5.6 Nanotubes of other Binary Oxides 230

6.5.7 Nanotubes of Titanates and other Complex Oxides 233

6.6 Pnictide Nanotubes 235

6.7 Nanotubes of Carbides and other Materials 240

6.8 Complex Inorganic Nanostructures Based on Nanotubes 240

6.9 Outlook 241

Referecnes 241

7 Gold Nanoparticles and Carbon Nanotubes: Precursors for Novel Composite Materials 249
Thathan Premkumar and Kurt E. Geckeler

7.1 Introduction 249

7.2 Gold Nanoparticles 249

7.3 Carbon Nanotubes 251

7.4 CNT–Metal Nanoparticle Composites 254

7.5 CNT–AuNP Composites 255

7.5.1 Filling of CNTs with AuNPs 255

7.5.2 Deposition of AuNPs Directly on the CNT Surface 256

7.5.3 Interaction Between Modifi ed AuNPs and CNTs 267

7.6 Applications 288

7.7 Merits and Demerits of Synthetic Approaches 289

7.8 Conclusions 291

Acknowledgments 292

References 292

8 Recent Advances in Metal Nanoparticle-Attached Electrodes 297
Munetaka Oyama, Akrajas Ali Umar, and Jingdong Zhang

8.1 Introduction 297

8.2 Seed-Mediated Growth Method for the Attachment and Growth of AuNPs on ITO 298

8.3 Electrochemical Applications of AuNP-Attached ITO 300

8.4 Improved Methods for Attachment and Growth of AuNPs on ITO 302

8.5 Attachment and Growth of AuNPs on Other Substrates 306

8.6 Attachment and Growth of Au Nanoplates on ITO 308

8.7 Attachment and Growth of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) on ITO 309

8.8 Attachment and Growth of Palladium Nanoparticles PdNPs on ITO 311

8.9 Attachment of Platinum Nanoparticles PtNPs on ITO and GC 312

8.10 Electrochemical Measurements of Biomolecules Using AuNP/ ITO Electrodes 315

8.11 Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metal NP-Attached ITO 315

8.12 Concluding Remarks 316

References 316

9 Mesoscale Radical Polymers: Bottom-Up Fabrication of Electrodes in Organic Polymer Batteries 319
Kenichi Oyaizu and Hiroyuki Nishide

9.1 Mesostructured Materials for Energy Storage Devices 319

9.2 Mesoscale Fabrication of Inorganic Electrode-Active Materials 322

9.3 Bottom-Up Strategy for Organic Electrode Fabrication 323

9.3.1 Conjugated Polymers for Electrode-Active Materials 323

9.3.2 Mesoscale Organic Radical Polymer Electrodes 324

9.4 Conclusions 330

References 330

10 Oxidation Catalysis by Nanoscale Gold, Silver, and Copper 333
Zhi Li, Soorly G. Divakara, and Ryan M. Richards

10.1 Introduction 333

10.2 Preparations 334

10.2.1 Silver Nanocatalysts 335

10.2.2 Copper Nanocatalysts 335

10.2.3 Gold Nanocatalysts 335

10.3 Selective Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) 337

10.3.1 Gold Catalysts 337

10.3.2 Silver Catalysts 342

10.3.3 Gold–Silver Alloy Catalysts 342

10.3.4 Copper Catalysts 343

10.4 Epoxidation Reactions 344

10.4.1 Gold Catalysts 344

10.4.2 Silver Catalysts 346

10.5 Selective Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 347

10.5.1 Gold Catalysts 349

10.5.2 Silver Catalysts 350

10.5.3 Copper Catalysts 350

10.6 Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes 350

10.6.1 Gold Catalysts 351

10.6.2 Silver Catalysts 351

10.7 Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide 353

10.8 Conclusions 354

References 355

11 Self-Assembling Nanoclusters Based on Tetrahalometallate Anions: Electronic and Mechanical Behavior 365
Ishenkumba A. Kahwa

11.1 Introduction 365

11.2 Preparation of Key Compounds 366

11.3 Structure of the [(A(18C6))4(MX4)] [BX4]2 · nH2O Complexes 367

11.4 Structure of the [(Na(15C5))4Br] [TlBr4]3 Complex 368

11.5 Spectroscopy of the Cubic F23 [(A(18C6))4(MX4)] [BX4]2 · nH2O 368

11.6 Unusual Luminescence Spectroscopy of Some Cubic [(A(18C6))4(MnX4)] [TlCl4]2 · nH2O Compounds 372

11.7 Luminescence Decay Dynamics and 18C6 Rotations 374

11.8 Conclusions 375

Acknowledgments 377

References 377

12 Optically Responsive Polymer Nanocomposites Containing Organic Functional Chromophores and Metal Nanostructures 379
Andrea Pucci, Giacomo Ruggeri, and Francesco Ciardelli

12.1 Introduction 379

12.2 Organic Chromophores as the Dispersed Phase 380

12.2.1 Nature of the Organic Dye 380

12.2.2 Polymeric Indicators to Mechanical Stress 381

12.3 Metal Nanostructures as the Dispersed Phase 389

12.3.1 Optical Properties of Metal Nanoassemblies 389

12.3.2 Nanocomposite-Based Indicators to Mechanical Stress 391

12.4 Conclusions 397

Acknowledgments 398

References 398

13 Nanocomposites Based on Phyllosilicates: From Petrochemicals to Renewable Thermoplastic Matrices 403
Maria-Beatrice Coltelli, Serena Coiai, Simona Bronco, and Elisa Passaglia

13.1 Introduction 403

13.1.1 Structure of Phyllosilicates 404

13.1.2 Morphology of Composites 408

13.1.3 Properties of Composites 411

13.2 Polyolefi n-Based Nanocomposites 411

13.2.1 Overview of the Preparation Methods 412

13.2.2 Organophilic Clay and Compatibilizer: Interactions with the Polyolefi n Matrix 414

13.2.3 The One-Step Process 426

13.3 Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)-Based Nanocomposites 429

13.3.1 In Situ Polymerization 430

13.3.2 Intercalation in Solution 433

13.3.3 Intercalation in the Melt 434

13.4 Poly(Lactide) (PLA)-Based Nanocomposites 439

13.4.1 Overview of Preparation Methods 439

13.5 Conclusions 447

Acknowledgments 449

References 450

Volume 2 14 Amphiphilic Poly(Oxyalkylene)-Amines Interacting with Layered Clays: Intercalation, Exfoliation, and New Applications 459
Jiang-Jen Lin, Ying-Nan Chan, and Wen-Hsin Chang

15 Mesoporous Alumina: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalysis 481
Tsunetake Seki and Makoto Onaka

16 Nanoceramics for Medical Applications 523
Besim Ben-Nissan and Andy H. Choi

17 Self-healing of Surface Cracks in Structural Ceramics 555
Wataru Nakao, Koji Takahashi, and Kotoji Ando

18 Ecological Toxicology of Engineered Carbon Nanoparticles 595
Aaron P. Roberts and Ryan R. Otter

19 Carbon Nanotubes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Surface Water Contaminants 615
Jose E. Herrera and Jing Cheng

20 Molecular Imprinting with Nanomaterials 651
Kevin Flavin and Marina Resmini

21 Near-Field Raman Imaging of Nanostructures and Devices 677
Ze Xiang Shen, Johnson Kasim, and Ting Yu

22 Fullerene-Rich Nanostructures 699
Fernando Langa and Jean-François Nierengarten

23 Interactions of Carbon Nanotubes with Biomolecules: Advances and Challenges 715
Dhriti Nepal and Kurt E. Geckeler

24 Nanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers and Hyperbranched Polymers: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications 743
Young-Seok Shon

25 Concepts in Self-Assembly 767
Jeremy J. Ramsden

26 Nanostructured Organogels via Molecular Self-Assembly 791
Arjun S. Krishnan, Kristen E. Roskov, and Richard J. Spontak

27 Self-assembly of Linear Polypeptide-based Block Copolymers 835
Sébastien Lecommandoux, Harm-Anton Klok, and Helmut Schlaad

28 Structural DNA Nanotechnology: Information-Guided Self-Assembly 869
Yonggang Ke, Yan Liu, and Hao Yan

Index 881

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Author Information

Kurt Geckeler is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) in South Korea. He is also Chair and WCU Professor of the Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, World Class University (WCU), and affiliated with the Institute of Medical System Engineering. Having obtained his academic degrees in Germany, he has been Visiting Professor in the USA (Harvard University and several others), in France, and in Chile. He is also Editor-in-Chief of the journal "Polymer International", published by John Wiley & Sons, and serving on the Editorial boards of a series of other international journals. In addition, he initiated and co-chaired the biannual international IUPAC symposium series on "Macro- and Supramolecular Architectures and Materials (MAM)". He has published more than 300 journal articles, over 60 patents, a dozen book chapters, and 6 books.

Hiroyuki Nishide is Professor at Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Tokyo. He received his PhD in 1975, Japan, and has been visiting researcher at Free University Berlin and Polytechnic University New York. he has published more than 500 journal articles. He is the Editorial Board member of Polymer Journal and Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, and is Past-President of the Society of Polymer Science, Japan, Vice-President of Japan Union of Chemical Science and Technology, and President of the Federation of Asian Polymer Societies.
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Reviews

"The rich variety of topics discussed in the book make it a valuable, interesting reference source for all professionals engaged in both fundamental and applied research on nanotechnology." (Chemistry & Industry, 25 October 2010)

"The editors have come close to achieving their rather ambitious goals. The monograph serves as an excellent snapshot of a nascent discipline that is in the process of learning to define itself." (JACS, 2010)

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