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Advanced Nanomaterials

ISBN: 978-3-527-31794-3
954 pages
February 2010
Advanced Nanomaterials (3527317945) cover image
In this first comprehensive compilation of review chapters on this hot topic, more than 30 experts from around the world provide in-depth chapters on their specific areas of expertise, covering such essential topics as:
* Block Copolymer Systems, Nanofibers and Nanotubes
* Helical Polymer-Based Supramolecular Films
* Synthesis of Inorganic Nanotubes
* Gold Nanoparticles and Carbon Nanotubes
* Recent Advances in Metal Nanoparticle-Attached Electrodes
* Oxidation Catalysis by Nanoscale Gold, Silver, and Copper
* Concepts in Self-Assembly
* Nanocomposites
* Amphiphilic Poly(Oxyalkylene)-Amines
* Mesoporous Alumina
* Nanoceramics for Medical Applications
* Ecological Toxicology of Engineered Carbon Nanoparticles
* Molecular Imprinting
* Near-Field Raman Imaging of Nanostructures and Devices
* Fullerene-Rich Nanostructures
* Interactions of Carbon Nanotubes with Biomolecules
* Nanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers and Hyperbranched Polymers
* Nanostructured Organogels via Molecular Self-Assembly
* Structural DNA Nanotechnology
With its coverage of all such important areas as self-assembly, polymeric materials, bionanomaterials, nanotubes, photonic and environmental aspects, this is an essential reference for materials scientists, engineers, chemists, physicists and biologists wishing to gain an in-depth knowledge of all the disciplines involved.
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Preface.

List of Contributors.

Volume 1.

1. Phase-Selective Chemistry in Block Copolymer Systems (Evan L. Schwartz and Christopher K. Ober).

1.1 Block Copolymers as Useful Nanomaterials.

1.2 Block Copolymers as Lithographic Materials.

1.3 Nanoporous Monoliths Using Block Coploymers.

1.4 Photo-Crosslinkable Nano-Objects.

1.5 Block Copolymers as Nanoreactors.

1.6 Interface-Active Block Copolymers.

1.7 Summary and Outlook.

References.

2. Block Copolymer Nanofibers and Nanotubes (Guojun Liu).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Preparation.

2.3 Solution Properties.

2.4 Chemical Reactions.

2.5 Concluding Remarks.

Acknowledgements.

References.

3. Smart Nanoassemblies of Block Copolymers for Drug and Gene Delivery (Horacio Cabral and Kazunori Kataoka).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Smart Nanoassemblies for Drug and Gene Delivery.

3.3 Endogenous Triggers.

3.4 External Stimuli.

3.5 Future Perspectives.

References.

4. A Comprehensive Approach to the Alignment and Ordering of Block Copolymer Morphologies (Massimo Lazzari and Claudio De Rosa).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 How to Help Phase Separation.

4.3 Orientation by External Fields.

4.4 Templated Self-Assembly on Nanopatterned Surfaces.

4.5 Epitaxy and Surface Interactions.

4.6 Summary and Outlook.

Acknowledgments.

References.

5. Helical Polymer-Based Supermolecular Films (Akihiro Ohira, Michiya Fujiki, and Masashi Kunitake).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Helical Polymer-Based 1-D and 2-D Architectures.

5.3 Helical Polymer-Based Functional Films.

Acknowledgments.

References.

6. Synthesis of Inorganic Nanotubes (C.N.R Rao and Achutharao Govindaraj).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 General Synthetic Strategies.

6.3 Nanotubes of Metals and other Elemental Materials.

6.4 Metal Chalcogenide Nanotubes.

6.5 Metal Oxide Nanotubes.

6.6 Pnictide Nanotubes.

6.7 Nanotubes of Carbides and other Materials.

6.8 Complex Inorganic Nanostructures Based on Nanotubes.

6.9 Outlook.

References.

7. Gold Nanoparticles and Carbon Nanotubes: Precursors for Novel Composite Materials (Thathan Premukumar and Kurt E. Geckeler).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Gold Nanoparticles.

7.3 Carbon Nanotubes.

7.4 CNT-Metal Nanoparticle Composites.

7.5 CNT-AuNP Composites.

7.6 Applications.

7.7 Merits and Demerits of Synthetic Approaches.

7.8 Conclusions.

Acknowledgments.

References.

8. Recent Advances in Metal Nanoparticle-Attached Electodes (Munetaka Oyama, Akrajas Ali Umar, and Jingdong Zhang).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Seed-Mediated Growth Method for the Attachment and Growth of AuNPs on ITO.

8.3 Electrochemical Applications of AuNP-Attached ITO.

8.4 Improved Methods for Attachment and Growth of AuNPs on ITO.

8.5 Attachment and Growth of AnNPs on Other Substrates.

8.6 Attachment and Growth of Au Nanoplates on ITO.

8.7 Attachment and Growth of Silver Nanoparticles  (AgNPs) on ITO.

8.8 Attachment and Growth of Palladium Nanoparticles PdNPs on ITO.

8.9 Attachment of Platinum Nanoparticles PtNPs on ITO and GC.

8.10 Electrochemical Measurements of Biomolecules Using AuNP/ITO Electrodes.

8.11 Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metal NP-Attached ITO.

8.12 Concluding Remarks.

References.

9. Mesoscale Radical Polymers: Bottom-Up Fabrication of Electrodes in Organic Polymer Batteries (Kenichi Oyaizu and Hiroyuki Nishide).

9.1 Mesostructured Materials for Energy Storage Devices.

9.2 Mesoscale Fabrication of Inorganic Electrode-Active Materials.

9.3 Bottom-Up Strategy for Organic Electrode Fabrication.

9.4 Conclusions.

References.

10. Oxidation Catalysis by Nanoscale Gold, Silver, and Copper (Zhi Li, Soorly G. Divakara, and Ryan M. Richards).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Preparations.

10.3 Selective Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide (CO).

10.4 Epoxidation Reactions.

10.5 Selective Oxidation of Hydrocarbons.

10.6 Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes.

10.7 Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide.

10.8 Conclusions.

References.

11. Self-Assembling Nanoclusters Based on Tetrahalometallate Anions: Electronic and Mechanical Behavior (Ishenkuma A. Kahwa).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Preparation of Key Compounds.

11.3 Structure of the [(A(18C6))4(MX4)] [BX4]2 . nH2O Complexes.

11.4 Structure of the [(Na(15C5))4Br] [TlBr4]3 Complex.

11.5 Spectroscopy of the Cubic F23 [(A(18C6))4(MX4)] [BX4]2 . nH2O.

11.6 Unusual Luminescence Spectroscopy of Some Cubic [(A(18C6))4(MnX4)] [TlCl4]2 . nH2O Compounds.

11.7 Luminescence Decay Dynamics and 18C6 Rotations.

11.8 Conclusions.

Acknowledgments.

References.

12. Optically Responsive Polymer Nanocomposites Containing Organic Functional Chromophores and Metal Nanostructures (Andrea Pucci, Giacomo Ruggeri, and Francesco Ciardelli).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Organic Chromophores as the Dispersed Phase.

12.3 Metal Nanostructures as the Dispersed Phase.

12.4 Conclusions.

Acknowledgments.

References.

13. Nanocomposites Based on Phyllosolicates: From Petrochemicals to Renewable Thermoplastic Matrices (Maria-Beatrice Coltelli, Serena Coiai, Simona Bronco, and Elisa Passaglia).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Polyolefin-Based Nanocomposites.

13.3 Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)-Based Nanocomposites.

13.4 Poly(Lactide) (PLA)-Based Nanocomposites.

13.5 Conclusions.

Acknowledgments.

References.

Volume 2

14. Amphiphilic Poly(Oxyalkylene)-Amines Interacting with Layered Clays: Intercalation, Exfoliation, and New Applications (Jiang-Jen, Ying-Nan Chan, and Wen-Hsin Chang).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Chemical Structures of Clays and Organic-Salt Modifications.

14.3 Poly(Oxyalkylene)-Polyamine Salts as Intercalating Agents.

14.4 Amphiphilic Copolymers as Intercalating Agents.

14.5 New Intercalation Mechanism Other than the Ionic-Exchange Reaction.

14.6 Self-Assembling Properties of Organoclays.

14.7 Exfoliation Mechanism and the Isolation of Random Silicate Platelets.

14.8 Isolation of the Randomized Silicate Platelets in Water.

14.9 Emerging Applications in Biomedical Research.

14.10 Conclusions.

References.

15. Mesoporous Alumina: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalysis (Tsunetake Seki and Makoto Onaka).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Synthesis of Mesoporous Alumina.

15.3 Mesoporous Alumina in Heterogeneous Catalysis.

15.4 Conclusions and Outlook.

References.

16. Nanoceramics for Medical Applications (Besim Ben-Nissan and Andy H. Choi).

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Tissue Engineering and Regeneration.

16.3 Nanohydroxyapatite Powders for Medical Applications.

16.4 Nanocoatings and Surface Modifications.

16.5 Simulated Body Fluids.

16.6 Nano- and Macrobioceramics for Drug Delivery and Radiotherapy.

16.7 Nanotoxicology and Nanodiagnostics.

References.

17. Self-healing of Surface Cracks in Structural Ceramics (Wataru Nakao, Koji Takahoshi, and Kotoji Ando).

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Fracture Manner of Ceramics.

17.3 History.

17.4 Mechanism.

17.5 Composition and Structure.

17.6 Valid Conditions.

17.7 Crack-healing Effect.

17.8 New Structural Integrity Method.

17.9 Advanced Self-crack Healing Ceramics.

17.10 Availability to Structural Components of the High Temperature Gas Turbine.

References.

18. Ecological Toxicology of Engineered Carbon Nanoparticles (Aaron P. Roberts and Ryan R. Otter).

18.1 Introduction.

18.2 Fate and Exposure.

18.3 Effects.

18.4 Summary.

References.

19. Carbon Nanotubes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Surface Water Contaminants (Jose E. Herrera and Jing Cheng).

19.1 Introduction.

19.2 Structure and Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes.

19.3 Properties of Carbon Nanotubes.

19.4 Carbon Nanotubes as Absorbents.

19.5 Summary of the Results, and Conclusions.

References.

20. Molecular Imprinting with Nanomaterials (Kevin Flavin and Marina Resmini).

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 Molecular Imprinting in Nanoparticles.

20.3 Molecular Imprinting with Diverse Nanomaterials.

20.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects.

References.

21. Near-Field Raman Imaging of Nanostructures and Devices (Ze Xiang Shen, Johnson Kasim, and Ting Yu).

21.1 Introduction.

21.2 Near-Field Raman Imaging Techniques.

21.3 Visualization of Si-C Covalent Bonding of Single Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Silicon Substrate.

21.4 Near-Field Scanning Raman Microscopy Using TERS.

21.5 Near-Field Raman Imaging Using Optically Trapped Dielectric Microsphere.

21.6 Conclusions.

References.

22. Fullerene-Rich Nanostructures (Fernando Langa and Jean-François Nierengarten).

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 Fullerene-Rich Dendritic Branches.

22.3 Photoelectrochemical Properties of Fullerodendrons and Their Nanoclusters.

22.4 Fullerene-Rich Dendrimers.

22.5 Conclusions.

Acknowledgments.

References.

23. Interactions of Carbon Nanotubes with Biomolecules: Advances and Challenges (Dhriti Nepal and Kurt E. Geckeler).

23.1 Introduction.

23.2 Structure and Properties.

23.3 Debundalization.

23.4 Noncovalent Functionalization.

23.5 Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes in Biopolymers.

23.6 Interaction of DNA with Carbon Nanotubes.

23.7 Interaction of Proteins with Carbon Nanotubes.

23.8 Technology Development Based on Biopolymer-Carbon Nanotube Products.

23.9 Conclusions.

Acknowledgments.

References.

24. Nanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers and Hyperbranced Polymers: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications (Young-Seok Shon).

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Synthesis of Nanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers via the Direct Method, and their Properties and Application.

24.3 Synthesis of Nanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers by Ligand Exchange reactions, and their Properties and Applications.

24.4 Synthesis of Nanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers by Dendritic Functionalization, and their Properties and Applications.

24.5 Synthesis of Nanoparticle-Cored Hyperbranched Polymers by Grafting on Nanoparticles.

24.6 Conclusions and Outlook.

Acknowledgment.

References.

25. Concepts in Self-Assembly (Jeremy J. Ramsden).

25.1 Introduction.

25.2 Theoretical Approaches to Self-Organization.

25.3 Examples of Self-Assembly.

25.4 Self-Assembly as a Manufacturing Process.

25.5 Useful Ideas.

25.6 Conclusions and Challenges.

References.

26. Nanostructured Organogels via Molecular Self-Assembly (Arjun S. Krisknan, Kristen E. Roskow, and Richard J. Spontak).

26.1 Introduction.

26.2 Block Copolymer Gels.

26.3 Organic Gelator Networks.

26.4 Conclusions.

Acknowledgments.

References.

27. Self-assembly of Linear Polypeptide-based Block Copolymers (Sébastien Lecommandoux, Harm-Anton Klok, and Helmut Schlaad).

27.1 Introduction.

27.2 Solution Self-assembly of Polypeptide-based Block Copolymers.

27.3 Solid-state Structures of Polypeptide-based Block Copolymers.

27.4 Summary and Outlook.

References.

28. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: Information-Guided Self-Assembly (Yonggang Ke, Yan Liu, and Hao Yan).

28.1 Introduction.

28.2 Periodic DNA Nanoarrays.

28.3 Finite-Sized and Addressable DNA Nanoarrays.

28.4 DNA Polyhedron Cages.

28.5 DNA Nanostructure-Directed Nanomaterial Assembly.

28.6 Concluding Remarks.

Acknowledgments.

References.

Index.

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Kurt Geckeler is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) in South Korea. He is also Chair and WCU Professor of the Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, World Class University (WCU), and affiliated with the Institute of Medical System Engineering. Having obtained his academic degrees in Germany, he has been Visiting Professor in the USA (Harvard University and several others), in France, and in Chile. He is also Editor-in-Chief of the journal "Polymer International", published by John Wiley & Sons, and serving on the Editorial boards of a series of other international journals. In addition, he initiated and co-chaired the biannual international IUPAC symposium series on "Macro- and Supramolecular Architectures and Materials (MAM)". He has published more than 300 journal articles, over 60 patents, a dozen book chapters, and 6 books.

Hiroyuki Nishide is Professor at Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, Tokyo. He received his PhD in 1975, Japan, and has been visiting researcher at Free University Berlin and Polytechnic University New York. he has published more than 500 journal articles. He is the Editorial Board member of Polymer Journal and Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, and is Past-President of the Society of Polymer Science, Japan, Vice-President of Japan Union of Chemical Science and Technology, and President of the Federation of Asian Polymer Societies.
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"The rich variety of topics discussed in the book make it a valuable, interesting reference source for all professionals engaged in both fundamental and applied research on nanotechnology." (Chemistry & Industry, 25 October 2010)

"The editors have come close to achieving their rather ambitious goals. The monograph serves as an excellent snapshot of a nascent discipline that is in the process of learning to define itself." (JACS, 2010)

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