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X-Rays in Nanoscience: Spectroscopy, Spectromicroscopy, and Scattering Techniques

Jinghua Guo (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32288-6
275 pages
December 2010
X-Rays in Nanoscience: Spectroscopy, Spectromicroscopy, and Scattering Techniques (3527322884) cover image
An up-to-date overview of the different x-ray based methods in the hot fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, including methods for imaging nanomaterials, as well as for probing the electronic structure of nanostructured materials in order to investigate their different properties. Written by authors at one of the world's top facilities working with these methods, this monograph presents and discusses techniques and applications in the fields of x-ray scattering, spectroscopy and microscope imaging.
The resulting systematic collection of these advanced tools will benefit graduate students, postdocs as well as professional researchers.
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Preface IX

List of Contributors XI

1 Introduction 1
Jinghua Guo

2 High-Resolution Soft X-Ray Microscopy for Imaging Nanoscale Magnetic Structures and Their Spin Dynamics 7
Peter Fischer, Mi-Young Im, and Brooke L. Mesler

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 X-Ray Optics and Soft X-Ray Microscopy 11

2.3 Magnetic Soft X-Ray Microscopy 12

2.4 Static Nanoscale Magnetic Structures 16

2.5 Spin Dynamics in Nanoscale Magnetic Structures 22

2.6 Future Perspectives for Magnetic Soft X-Ray Microscopy 27

Acknowledgments 28

References 28

3 Advances in Magnetization Dynamics Using Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy 39
Tolek Tyliszczak and Kang Wei Chou

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Magnetism in Confined Structures 40

3.2.1 Magnetic Thin Film Structures of Ideally Soft Materials 41

3.2.2 Spin Dynamics of the Magnetic Vortex State 42

3.3 Experimental Setup 43

3.3.1 Zone Plate 43

3.3.2 Radiation Damage and Choice of Detectors 45

3.3.3 Time-Resolved Magnetic Imaging 46

3.3.3.1 Contrast Mechanism for Magnetic Imaging 46

3.3.3.2 Sample and Stripline Configuration for In-Plane Field Excitation 47

3.3.3.3 Excitation Types 48

3.3.3.4 Experimental Setup and Data Acquisition 49

3.4 Magnetic Characterization of Ferromagnetic Structures 50

3.4.1 Spin-Reorientation Transition in Ferromagnetic Multilayers on Nanospheres 50

3.4.2 Magnetic Characterization of Magnetic Vortex Structures 52

3.4.2.1 In-Plane Magnetization of a Vortex Structure 53

3.4.2.2 Out-of-Plane Magnetization of a Vortex Structure 54

3.5 Magnetization Dynamics in Ferromagnetic Vortex Structures 56

3.5.1 Differential Imaging of Magnetic Vortex Structures 57

3.5.2 Gyrotropic Mode 60

3.5.2.1 Resonant Behavior under Pulsed Excitation 60

3.5.2.2 Resonant Sine Excitation 64

3.5.3 Nonlinear Response of Magnetic Vortex Structures 67

3.5.3.1 Vortex Core Reversal by Burst Excitation 68

3.5.3.2 Vortex Core Reversal – Mechanism 71

3.5.3.3 Final Remarks 73

3.6 Conclusion and Outlook 73

Acknowledgments 74

References 74

4 Scanning Photoelectron Microscopy for the Characterization of Novel Nanomaterials 79
Jau-Wern Chiou and Chia-Hao Chen

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Photoelectron Spectroscopy 80

4.3 Scanning Photoelectron Microscopy 87

4.3.1 The Focusing Optics 88

4.3.2 The Electron Energy Analyzer 91

4.3.3 The Sample Scanning Mechanism 93

4.4 The Application of Scanning Photoelectron Microscopy 96

4.4.1 Oxidation States in Scanning-Probe-Induced Si3N4 to SiOx Conversion 96

4.4.2 Well-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes 100

4.4.3 GaN Nanowires 103

4.4.4 Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods 106

4.4.5 Diameter Dependence of the Electronic Structure of ZnO Nanorods Determined by Scanning Photoelectron Microscopy 108

4.4.6 Comparison of the Electronic Structures of Zn1−xCoxO and Zn1−xMgxO Nanorods 109

4.5 Conclusion 113

Acknowledgments 114

References 114

5 Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy 119
Stefano Marchesini and David Shapiro

5.1 Introduction 119

5.1.1 A Brief History of the Phase Problem 120

5.1.2 Scattering of X-Rays by Homogeneous Media 124

5.1.2.1 The First Born Approximation 124

5.1.3 The First Rytov Approximation 126

5.1.4 Comparison of CXDM with other X-Ray Microscopes 127

5.2 Iterative Algorithms 128

5.2.1 General Formalism 128

5.2.2 Acceleration Strategies 132

5.3 Experimental Design 133

5.3.1 Sampling and Transverse Coherence 134

5.3.2 Temporal Coherence 135

5.4 Data Acquisition and Prereconstruction Analysis 136

5.4.1 Data Assembly 137

5.4.2 Prereconstruction Diagnostics 141

5.5 Image Reconstruction 143

5.5.1 Image Averaging 145

5.5.2 Missing Data 147

5.5.3 Resolution Analysis 149

5.5.4 Three-Dimensional Objects 151

5.6 Applications 152

5.6.1 Cell Biology 153

5.6.2 Materials Science 155

5.6.3 Ultrafast Science 157

5.7 X-Ray Holography and Scanning Methods 159

5.7.1 Scanning Methods 163

5.8 Conclusions 163

Acknowledgments 164

References 164

Further Reading 168

6 Many-Body Interactions in Nanoscale Materials by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy 169
Eli Rotenberg

6.1 Introduction: Why Do We Care about the Bandstructure? 169

6.2 Bandstructure for Beginners 170

6.3 What is ARPES? 178

6.4 ARPES as a Probe of Many-Body Interactions in Nanostructures 185

6.4.1 Thin Films 186

6.4.2 Two-Dimensional States 191

6.4.3 Direct Observation of Many-Body Interactions 192

6.4.4 One-Dimensional Structures 198

6.5 Toward NanoARPES – A New Tool for Nanoscience at Synchrotrons 199

6.5.1 nARPES of Polycrystalline Samples 203

6.6 Summary and Outlook 204

Acknowledgments 205

References 206

7 Soft X-Ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy in the Studies of Nanomaterials 211
Jinghua Guo

7.1 Introduction 211

7.2 Electronic Structure of Nanostructured Materials 212

7.3 Soft X-Ray Process and Spectroscopy 214

7.3.1 Soft X-Ray Absorption Edges 214

7.3.2 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy 216

7.3.3 X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy 217

7.3.4 Resonant X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy 218

7.3.5 Experimental Details 219

7.3.5.1 Undulator Beamline 220

7.3.5.2 End-Station and Fluorescence Spectrometer 220

7.4 Chemical Sensitivity of X-Ray Spectroscopy 222

7.4.1 π- and σ-Bonding Character 222

7.4.2 N Chemical Sites in CNx 223

7.5 Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes 224

7.5.1 Fullerenes 226

7.5.1.1 C60 226

7.5.1.2 C60, C70, and C84 229

7.5.1.3 Carbon Nanotubes 230

7.6 Buried Atomical Layers and Interfaces 234

7.7 Nanostructured 3d Transition Metal Oxides 238

7.7.1 ZnO Nanocrystal 238

7.7.2 Nanostrutured Hematite 240

7.7.3 Nanostructured TiO2 and Li Insertion 243

7.7.4 NiCl2 in Water Solution 245

7.7.5 In Situ Characterization of Co Nanoparticles 247

Acknowledgments 249

References 249

Index 255

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Jinghua Guo is a staff scientist of Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Having obtained his academic degrees from Zehjiang University, China (BS) and Uppsala University, Sweden (PhD), he spent his career working as faculty member in Uppsala University before taking up his present appointment at LBNL. His research interest has been soft x-ray spectroscopy and materials science. Dr. Guo has authored over 180 peer-reviewed scientific publications.
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