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Food Processing Handbook, 2nd Edition, 2 Volume Set

ISBN: 978-3-527-32468-2
826 pages
December 2011
Food Processing Handbook, 2nd Edition, 2 Volume Set (3527324682) cover image
The second edition of the Food Processing Handbook presents a comprehensive review of technologies, procedures and innovations in food
processing, stressing topics vital to the food industry today and pinpointing the trends in future research and development.

Focusing on the technology involved, this handbook describes the principles and the equipment used as well as the changes - physical,
chemical, microbiological and organoleptic - that occur during food preservation. In so doing, the text covers in detail such techniques as
post-harvest handling, thermal processing, evaporation and dehydration, freezing, irradiation, high-pressure processing, emerging technologies and packaging. Separation and conversion operations widely used in the food industry are also covered as are the processes of baking, extrusion and frying. In addition, it addresses current concerns about the safety of processed foods (including HACCP systems, traceability and hygienic design of plant) and control of food processes, as well as the impact of processing on the environment, water and waste treatment, lean manufacturing and the roles of nanotechnology and fermentation in food processing.

This two-volume set is a must-have for scientists and engineers involved in food manufacture, research and development in both industry
and academia, as well as students of food-related topics at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

From Reviews on the First Edition:
"This work should become a standard text for students of food technology, and is worthy of a place on the bookshelf of anybody involved in the production of foods."
Journal of Dairy Technology, August 2008

"This work will serve well as an excellent course resource or reference as it has well-written explanations for those new to the field and detailed equations for those needing greater depth."
CHOICE, September 2006
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Preface to the Second Edition XV

Preface to the First Edition XVII

List of Contributors XIX

Content of Volume 1

1 Postharvest Handling and Preparation of Foods for Processing 1
Alistair S. Grandison

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Properties of Raw Food Materials and Their Susceptibility to Deterioration and Damage 2

1.3 Storage and Transportation of Raw Materials 9

1.4 Raw Material Cleaning 13

1.5 Sorting and Grading 20

1.6 Blanching 25

1.7 Sulfiting of Fruits and Vegetables 28

References 29

2 Thermal Processing 31
Michael J. Lewis and Soojin Jun

2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Reaction Kinetics 35

2.3 Temperature Dependence 37

2.4 Heat Processing Methods 46

2.5 Special Problems with Viscous and Particulate Products 65

2.6 Ohmic Heating 67

2.7 Filling Procedures 72

2.8 Storage 72

References 73

3 Evaporation and Dehydration 77
James G. Brennan

3.1 Evaporation (Concentration, Condensing) 77

3.2 Dehydration (Drying) 91

References 126

4 Freezing 131
José Mauricio Pardo and Keshavan Niranjan

4.1 Introduction 131

4.2 Refrigeration Methods and Equipment 131

4.3 Low Temperature Production 135

4.4 Freezing Kinetics 145

4.5 Effects of Refrigeration on Food Quality 150

References 151

5 Irradiation 153
Alistair S. Grandison

5.1 Introduction 153

5.2 Principles of Irradiation 153

5.3 Equipment 160

5.4 Safety Aspects 165

5.5 Effects on the Properties of Food 165

5.6 Detection Methods for Irradiated Foods 167

5.7 Applications and Potential Applications 168

References 176

6 High Pressure Processing 179
Margaret F. Patterson, Dave A. Ledward, Craig Leadley, and Nigel Rogers

6.1 Introduction 179

6.2 Effect of High Pressure on Microorganisms 182

6.3 Ingredient Functionality 188

6.4 Enzyme Activity 189

6.5 Foaming and Emulsification 191

6.6 Gelation 193

6.7 Organoleptic Considerations 195

6.8 Equipment for HPP 196

6.9 Pressure Vessel Considerations 197

6.10 Current and Potential Applications of HPP for Foods 200

References 201

7 Emerging Technologies for Food Processing 205
Liliana Alamilla-Beltrán, Jorge Welti-Chanes, José Jorge Chanona-Pérez, Maria de Jesús Perea-Flores, and Gustavo F. Gutiérrez-López

7.1 Introduction 205

7.2 Pulsed Electric Field Processing 206

7.3 Ultrasound Power 215

7.4 Other Technologies 218

7.5 Conclusions 220

References 221

8 Packaging 225
James G. Brennan and Brian P. F. Day

8.1 Introduction 225

8.2 Factors Affecting the Choice of a Packaging Material and/or Container for a Particular Duty 226

8.3 Materials and Containers Used for Packaging Foods 233

8.4 Modified Atmosphere Packaging 258

8.5 Aseptic Packaging 261

8.6 Active Packaging 264

8.7 Intelligent Packaging 272

8.8 The Role of Nanotechnology in Food Packaging 276

References 276

Content of Volume 2

Separations in Food Processing: Part 1 281
James G. Brennan and Alistair S. Grandison

9.1 Introduction 281

9.2 Solid–Liquid Filtration 283

9.3 Centrifugation 294

9.4 Solid–Liquid Extraction (Leaching) 302

9.5 Distillation 311

9.6 Crystallization 320

References 327

10 Separations in Food Processing: Part 2 – Membrane Processing, Ion Exchange, and Electrodialysis 331
Michael J. Lewis and Alistair S. Grandison

10.1 Membrane Processes 331

10.2 Ion Exchange 348

10.3 Electrodialysis 357

References 360

11 Mixing, Emulsification, and Size Reduction 363
James G. Brennan

11.1 Mixing (Agitation, Blending) 363

11.2 Emulsification 374

11.3 Size Reduction (Crushing, Comminution, Grinding, Milling) of Solids 386

References 404

12 Baking 407
Stanley P. Cauvain

12.1 Introduction 407

12.2 The Key Characteristics of Existing Bakery Product Groups 408

12.3 Bread Making 411

12.4 The Manufacture of Cakes 422

12.5 Biscuit and Cookie Making 424

12.6 The Manufacture of Pastry Products 426

References 427

13 Extrusion 429
Paul Ainsworth

13.1 General Principles 429

13.2 Extrusion Equipment 432

13.3 Effects of Extrusion on the Properties of Foods 437

References 449

14 Food Deep-Fat Frying 455
Pedro Bouchon

14.1 General Principles 455

14.2 Effect of Deep-Fat Fried Food on Human Health 461

14.3 Oil Absorption in Deep-Fat Fried Food 465

14.4 Deep-Fat Frying Equipment 475

14.5 French Fries, Potato Chips, and Fabricated Chips Production 477

References 483

Further Reading 489

15 Safety in Food Processing 491
Carol A. Wallace

15.1 Introduction 491

15.2 Safe Design 491

15.3 Prerequisite Programs 495

15.4 HACCP, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System 502

15.5 Ongoing Control of Food Safety in Processing 511

References 512

16 Traceability in Food Processing and Distribution 515
Christopher Knight

16.1 What Is Traceability? 515

16.2 Traceability and Legislation 516

16.3 Traceability and International/Private Standards 518

16.4 Traceability and Private Standards 519

16.5 Traceability in the Food Supply Chain 519

16.6 Product Identification 520

16.7 Management of Traceability Information 522

16.8 The Traceability System 523

16.9 Examples of Traceability Systems 525

References 530

17 The Hygienic Design of Food Processing Plant 533
Tony Hasting

17.1 Introduction 533

17.2 Engineering Factors Influencing Hygiene 534

17.3 Hygienic Equipment Design 536

17.4 Process Design 545

17.5 Process Operation and Control 551

17.6 Future Trends 556

17.7 Conclusions 557

References 557

18 Process Control in Food Processing 559
Keshavan Niranjan, Araya Ahromrit, and Ashok S. Khare

18.1 Introduction 559

18.2 Measurement of Process Parameters 559

18.3 Control Systems 560

18.4 Process Control in Modern Food Processing 566

18.5 Concluding Remarks 569

References 570

19 Environmental Aspects of Food Processing 571
Niharika Mishra, Ali Abd El-Aal Bakr, Keshavan Niranjan, and Gary Tucker

19.1 Introduction 571

19.2 Waste Characteristics 572

19.3 Wastewater Processing Technology 573

19.4 Resource Recovery from Food Processing Wastes 574

19.5 Environmental Impact of Packaging Wastes 575

19.6 Refrigerants 578

19.7 Energy Issues Related to the Environment 580

19.8 Life Cycle Assessment 582

19.9 Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions 582

References 589

Further Reading 591

20 Water and Waste Treatment 593
R. Andrew Wilbey

20.1 Introduction 593

20.2 Fresh Water 593

20.3 Wastewater 603

20.4 Sludge Disposal 618

20.5 Final Disposal of Wastewater 619

References 620

21 Process Realisation 623
Kevan G. Leach

21.1 Synopsis 623

21.2 Manufacturing Design 623

21.3 Process and Plant Design 624

21.4 Process Economics – Investment Criteria 629

21.5 Determining and Improving Process Performance 635

21.6 Variation 638

21.7 Brief Introduction to Lean and Waste 650

21.8 Tools for Continuous Improvement 654

References 665

22 Microscopy Techniques and Image Analysis for the Quantitative Evaluation of Food Microstructure 667
Maria de Jesús Perea-Flores, Angélica Gabriela Mendoza-Madrigal, José Jorge Chanona-Pérez, Liliana Alamilla-Beltrán, and Gustavo Fidel Gutierrez-López

22.1 Introduction 667

22.2 Microstructure, Nanostructure, and Levels of Structure 669

22.3.1 Light Microscopy 673

22.4 Image Analysis 677

22.5 Applications of Microscopy and Image Analysis Techniques 679

22.6 Concluding Remarks 689

References 689

23 Nanotechnology in the Food Sector 693
Christopher J. Kirby

23.1 Introduction 693

23.2 The Driving Force for Nanotechnology Development 694

23.3 Manufacture of Nanosystems: General Principles 695

23.4 Nanotechnology and Food 696

23.5 Delivery Systems for Functional Food Ingredients 697

23.6 Application of Nanotechnology in Food Packaging and Other Contact Surfaces 712

23.7 Other Areas of Application 716

23.8 Potential Health and Safety Concerns Involved with Ingestion of Nanoparticulates 717

23.9 Regulatory Aspects 719

23.10 Recent Initiatives 721

References 722

24 Fermentation and the Use of Enzymes 727
Dimitris Charalampopoulos

24.1 Introduction 727

24.2 Fermentation Theory 727

24.3 Fermented Foods 735

24.4 Enzyme Technology 742

References 750

Index 753

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James G. Brennan qualified with a BSc(Hons) degree in Dairy Science from University College Cork, Ireland, in 1959. In 1960 he obtained an MSc degree, by research, in the same subject. Following a short spell in industry he moved to the National College of Food Technology (NCFT), Weybridge, UK, to undertake a postgraduate course in Food Technology. On successful completion of that course he joined the academic staff of NCFT. In 1966 NCFT became part of the University of Reading. In 1982 NCFT moved from Weybridge to the main University of Reading campus. Mr Brennan continued as a member of the academic staff of the University of Reading until his retirement in 2002, completing over forty years of service. His teaching interests were mainly in food dehydration, food packaging and separation operations. His research interests were in the fundamentals of dehydration and physical/textural properties of foods and their measurement. He supervised over twenty PhD students and published well over one hundred research and technical papers. He is author of a book on food dehydration and coauthor with three colleagues of a well known book on food engineering operations. He edited and contributed material to the first edition of this book. He also collaborated with industry in a number of projects. Together with his wife, Anne, he travelled widely during his career including extended stays teaching and researching in Australia and the USA. In retirement he continues to write, edit and review papers and books in his field.

Alistair S. Grandison qualified with a BSc (Hons) in Biochemistry from the University of Liverpool in 1973 and a PhD from the same university in 1976. Following a short spell at the Royal Liverpool Hospital he moved to the National Institute for Research in Dairying where he worked on cheese and dairy products. In 1987 he moved to the University of Reading as a lecturer. He is currently a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences where his teaching interests include dairy science and food processing in general. His research has covered many aspects of dairy science and technology including the lactoperoxidase system, separation processes and the coagulation of milk and manfacture of dairy products, frequently involving industrial collaboration. He has supervised 25 PhD students and published around 150 research papers, edited one book and written a number of book chapters.
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This 2nd edition has 35 % new material. The entire handbook has been revised, update and expanded and includes 9 entirely new chapters, ranging from Emerging Technologies to the Use of Enzymes to Traceability to Nanotechnology.
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