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Industrial High Pressure Applications: Processes, Equipment, and Safety

Rudolf Eggers (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32586-3
422 pages
October 2012
Industrial High Pressure Applications: Processes, Equipment, and Safety (3527325867) cover image
Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found
in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more.
The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize.

Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues.

With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable
reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.
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Preface XIII

List of Contributors XV

Part One Introduction 1

1 Historical Retrospect on High-Pressure Processes 3
Rudolf Eggers

References 6

2 Basic Engineering Aspects 7
Rudolf Eggers

2.1 What are the Specifics of High-Pressure Processes? 7

2.2 Thermodynamic Aspects: Phase Equilibrium 9

2.3 Software and Data Collection 10

2.4 Phase Equilibrium: Experimental Methods and Measuring Devices 10

2.5 Interfacial Phenomena and Data 12

2.6 Material Properties and Transport Data for Heat and Mass Transfer 20

2.7 Evaporation and Condensation at High Pressures 37

2.7.1 Evaporation 37

2.8 Condensation 43

References 46

Part Two Processes 49

3 Catalytic and Noncatalytic Chemical Synthesis 51
Joachim Rüther, Ivo Müller, and Reinhard Michel

3.1 Thermodynamics as Driver for Selection of High Pressure 51

3.1.1 Chemical Equilibrium: Law of Mass Action 51

3.1.2 Reaction Kinetics 53

3.1.3 Phase Equilibria and Transport Phenomena 55

3.2 Ammonia Synthesis Process 55

3.2.1 Basics and Principles 56

3.2.2 History of the Ammonia Process 57

3.2.3 Development of Process and Pressure 58

3.2.4 Special Aspects 63

3.3 Urea Process 64

3.3.1 Basics and Principles 65

3.3.2 History of Urea Process 67

3.3.3 Integration of Ammonia and Urea Processes 71

3.3.4 Special Construction Materials 71

3.4 General Aspects of HP Equipment 72

3.4.1 Multilayered Vessels 73

3.4.2 Recommendations to Vessel Design 73

3.4.3 Gaskets and Bolting 74

References 75

4 Low-Density Polyethylene High-Pressure Process 77
Dieter Littmann, Giulia Mei, Diego Mauricio Castaneda-Zuniga, Christian-Ulrich Schmidt, and Gerd Mannebach

4.1 Introduction 77

4.1.1 Historical Background 77

4.1.2 Properties and Markets 77

4.1.3 Polyethylene High-Pressure Processes 78

4.1.4 Latest Developments 78

4.2 Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics 78

4.2.1 Initiation 79

4.2.2 Propagation 79

4.2.3 Chain Transfer 80

4.2.4 Termination 81

4.2.5 Reaction Kinetics 81

4.3 Process 82

4.3.1 General Process Description 82

4.3.2 Autoclave Reactor 84

4.3.3 Tubular Reactor 85

4.3.4 Safety 88

4.4 Products and Properties 89

4.4.1 Blown Film 89

4.4.2 Extrusion Coating 90

4.4.3 Injection Molding 90

4.4.4 Wire and Cable 90

4.4.5 Blow Molding 90

4.4.6 Copolymers 91

4.5 Simulation Tools and Advanced Process Control 91

4.5.1 Introduction 91

4.5.2 Off-Line Applications 91

4.5.2.1 Flow Sheet Simulations 91

4.5.2.2 Steady-State Simulation of the Tubular Reactor 92

4.5.2.3 Dynamic Simulation of the Process 92

4.5.3 Online Application 93

4.5.3.1 Soft Sensors 93

4.5.3.2 Advanced Process Control 94

References 96

5 High-Pressure Homogenization for the Production of Emulsions 97
Heike P. Schuchmann, Née Karbstein, Lena L. Hecht, Marion Gedrat, and Karsten Köhler

5.1 Motivation: Why High-Pressure Homogenization for Emulsification Processes? 97

5.2 Equipment: High-Pressure Homogenizers 98

5.2.1 Principal Design 98

5.2.2 Disruption Systems for High-Pressure Homogenization 98

5.2.2.1 Valves 98

5.2.2.2 Orifices and Nozzles 99

5.2.3 Flow Conditions 100

5.2.3.1 Flow Conditions in the Disruption System 100

5.2.3.2 Effect of Flow Conditions in Homogenization Valves on Emulsion Droplets 101

5.2.4 Simultaneous Emulsification and Mixing (SEM) Systems 101

5.3 Processes: Emulsification and Process Functions 103

5.3.1 Droplet Disruption in High-Pressure Valves 103

5.3.2 Droplet Coalescence in Homogenization Valves 104

5.3.3 Droplet Agglomeration in Homogenization Valves 107

5.4 Homogenization Processes Using SEM-Type Valves 107

5.4.1 Dairy Processes 107

5.4.2 Pickering Emulsions 109

5.4.3 Melt Homogenization 111

5.4.4 Emulsion Droplets as Templates for Hybrid (Core–Shell) Nanoparticle Production 112

5.4.5 Submicron Emulsion Droplets as Nanoreactors 114

5.4.6 Nanoparticle Deagglomeration and Formulation of Nanoporous Carriers for Bioactives 116

5.5 Summary and Outlook 117

References 118

6 Power Plant Processes: High-Pressure–High-Temperature Plants 123
Alfons Kather and Christian Mehrkens

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 Coal-Fired Steam Power Plants 125

6.2.1 Thermodynamics and Power Plant Efficiency 125

6.2.2 Configuration of Modern Steam Power Plants 127

6.3 Steam Generator 130

6.3.1 Steam Generator Design 130

6.3.2 Membrane Wall 134

6.3.3 Final Superheater Heating Surface 135

6.3.4 Final Superheater Outlet Header and Live Steam Piping 136

6.4 High-Pressure Steam Turbines 138

6.4.1 Configuration of Modern Steam Turbines 138

6.4.2 Design Features of High-Pressure Steam Turbines 139

6.5 Summary and Outlook 142

References 142

7 High-Pressure Application in Enhanced Crude Oil Recovery 145
Philip T. Jaeger, Mohammed B. Alotaibi, and Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din

7.1 Introduction 145

7.1.1 Principal Phenomena in Oil and Gas Reservoirs 145

7.1.2 Reservoir Conditions 145

7.2 Fundamentals 147

7.2.1 Miscibility at Elevated Pressures 147

7.2.2 Physical Chemical Properties of Reservoir Systems at Elevated Pressures 148

7.2.2.1 Density 148

7.2.2.2 Rheology 150

7.2.2.3 Interfacial Tension 151

7.2.2.4 Wetting 151

7.2.2.5 Diffusivity 153

7.2.2.6 Permeability 154

7.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery 155

7.3.1 Water Flooding 157

7.3.2 Chemical Injection 158

7.3.3 Thermal Recovery 158

7.3.4 Gas Injection 159

7.3.5 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) in EOR 160

7.3.6 Combustion 160

7.4 Oil Reservoir Stimulation 161

7.5 Heavy Oil Recovery 161

7.6 Hydrates in Oil Recovery 162

7.7 Equipment 163

7.7.1 Pumps 163

7.7.2 Pipes 164

7.7.3 Seals 164

7.7.4 Separators 165

References 166

8 Supercritical Processes 169
Rudolf Eggers and Eduard Lack

8.1 Introduction 169

8.2 Processing of Solid Material 172

8.2.1 Isobaric Process 174

8.2.2 Single or Cascade Operation with Multistep Separation 174

8.2.3 Cascade Operation and Multistep Separation 175

8.2.4 Extractable Substances 175

8.2.4.1 Selective Extraction 176

8.2.4.2 Total Extraction 176

8.2.5 Pretreatment of Raw Materials 176

8.2.6 Design Criteria 177

8.2.7 Design with the Use of Basket 178

8.2.8 Thermodynamic Conditions 179

8.2.9 Mass Transfer 179

8.2.10 Hydrodynamics 182

8.2.11 Energy Optimization 182

8.2.12 Pump Process 182

8.2.13 Compressor Process 183

8.2.14 Some Applications of Supercritical Extraction of Solids 184

8.2.14.1 Decaffeination of Green Coffee Beans 184

8.2.14.2 Production of Hops Extract 184

8.2.14.3 Extraction of Spices and Herbs 186

8.2.14.4 Extraction of Essential Oils 186

8.2.14.5 Production of Natural Antioxidants 188

8.2.14.6 Production of High-Value Fatty Oils 189

8.2.14.7 Extraction of c-Linolenic Acid 189

8.2.14.8 Cleaning and Decontamination of Cereals Like Rice 189

8.2.14.9 Impregnation of Wood and Polymers 190

8.2.14.10 Cleaning of Cork 193

8.2.14.11 Economics – Especially Investment Cost for Multipurpose Plants 193

8.3 Processing of Liquids 194

8.4 Future Trends 202

8.4.1 Drying of Aerogels 202

8.4.2 Treating of Microorganisms 203

8.4.3 Use of Supercritical Fluids for the Generation of Renewable Energy 204

8.4.4 Gas-Assisted High-Pressure Processes 205

References 206

9 Impact of High-Pressure on Enzymes 211
Leszek Kulisiewicz, Andreas Wierschem, Cornelia Rauh, and Antonio Delgado 9.1 Introduction 211

9.2 Influence of Pressure on Biomatter 212

9.3 Influence of Pressure on the Kinetics of Enzyme Inactivation 215

9.4 Technological Aspects 218

9.5 Summary 226

References 227

10 High Pressure in Renewable Energy Processes 235
Nicolaus Dahmen and Andrea Kruse

10.1 Introduction 235

10.2 Thermochemical Processes 236

10.2.1 Pyrolysis 237

10.2.2 Liquefaction 238

10.2.3 Gasification 240

10.2.3.1 Fixed Bed Gasifier 242

10.2.3.2 Fluidized Bed Gasifiers 243

10.2.3.3 Entrained Flow Gasifiers 244

10.3 Hydrothermal Processes 248

10.3.1 Hydrothermal Carbonization 250

10.3.2 Hydrothermal Liquefaction 251

10.3.3 Hydrothermal Gasification 253

10.3.3.1 Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification 253

10.3.3.2 Supercritical Hydrothermal Gasification 254

References 256

11 Manufacturing Processes 257
Andrzej Karpinski and Rolf Wink

11.1 Autofrettage: A High-Pressure Process to Improve Fatigue Lifetime 260

11.2 Waterjet Cutting Technology 265

11.2.1 Generation of Waterjets 265

11.2.2 Cutting Process and Parameters 267

11.2.3 High-Pressure Pumps 269

11.2.4 Waterjet Cutting with 6000 bar 272

11.2.5 Cutting Devices 273

11.2.6 New Trends in the Waterjet Cutting 276

11.2.6.1 Abrasive Water Suspension Jet 276

11.2.6.2 Microcutting 276

11.2.6.3 Medical Applications 277

References 278

Part Three Process Equipment and Safety 283

12 High-Pressure Components 285
Waldemar Hiller and Matthias Zeiger

12.1 Materials for High-Pressure Components 285

12.1.1 Steel Selection Criteria 286

12.1.2 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel 287

12.1.3 Weldable Fine-Grain and High-Temperature Structural Steels 287

12.1.4 High-Strength High-Alloy Steels 287

12.1.5 Austenitic Stainless Steels 288

12.1.6 Austenitic–Ferritic Duplex Steels 288

12.1.7 Chromium–Molybdenum Hydrogen-Resistant Steels 288

12.1.8 Fatigue and Fracture Properties of High-Strength Steels 289

12.2 Pressure Vessels 290

12.2.1 Leak Before Burst 292

12.2.2 Welded Pressure Vessels 292

12.2.3 Nonwelded Pressure Vessels 294

12.2.4 Prestressing Techniques 298

12.2.5 Sealing Systems 300

12.3 Heat Exchangers 301

12.4 Valves 303

12.5 Piping 304

References 309

13 High-Pressure Pumps and Compressors 311
Eberhard Schluecker

13.1 Selection of Machinery 311

13.2 Influence of the Fluid on Selection and Design of the Machinery 313

13.3 Design Standards for High-Pressure Machines 314

13.4 Materials and Materials Testing 316

13.5 High-Pressure Centrifugal Pumps and High-Pressure Turbocompressors 317

13.6 Rotating Positive Displacement Machines 319

13.6.1 Discharge Rate 319

13.6.2 Gear Pumps 320

13.6.3 Screw Pumps 321

13.6.4 Progressing Cavity Pump 323

13.7 Reciprocating Positive Displacement Machines 323

13.7.1 Drive Technology for Reciprocating Positive Displacement Machines 324

13.7.2 Flow Behavior of Reciprocating Positive Displacement Machines 325

13.7.3 Pulsation Damping 327

13.7.4 Design Versions 328

13.7.4.1 Vertical Pump Head for 70 MPa 328

13.7.4.2 Horizontal Pump Head with Y-Piece for 300 MPa 329

13.7.4.3 Diaphragm Pump Heads 329

13.7.4.4 Piston Compressor for 30 MPa at the Maximum 330

13.7.4.5 Compressor for 300 MPa 332

13.7.4.6 Piston Compressor for 1400 MPa 333

References 334

14 High-Pressure Measuring Devices and Test Equipment 335
Arne Pietsch

14.1 Introduction 335

14.2 Process Data Measuring – Online 336

14.2.1 Sensor Choice and Installation 337

14.2.2 Pressure and Differential Pressure 338

14.2.3 Temperature 341

14.2.4 Flow 343

14.2.5 Fluid Level 350

14.2.6 Density 351

14.2.7 Viscosity 351

14.2.8 Concentration – Solute in High-Pressure Gases and Fluids 352

14.2.9 Concentration – Gas Traces Dissolved in Liquids 358

14.3 Lab Determination – Additional Offline Test Equipment 359

14.3.1 Phase Equilibrium 359

14.3.2 Magnetic Sorption Balance 362

14.3.3 Interfacial Tension and Wetting 362

14.3.4 Gas Hydrates 363

14.3.5 Other Properties Online 364

14.4 Safety Aspects 364

14.5 Future 366

References 367

15 Sizing of High-Pressure Safety Valves for Gas Service 369
Jürgen Schmidt

15.1 Standard Valve Sizing Procedure 369

15.2 Limits of the Standard Valve Sizing Procedure 371

15.3 Development of a Sizing Method for Real Gas Applications 372

15.3.1 Equation of State and Real Gas Factor 375

15.3.2 Isentropic Exponent 378

15.3.3 Critical Pressure Ratio 379

15.4 Sizing of Safety Valves for Real Gas Flow 380

15.5 Summary 382

Appendix 15.A Calculation of Sizing Coefficient According to EN-ISO 4126-1 and a Real Gas Nozzle Flow Model 383

15.A.1 Inlet Stagnation Conditions 383

15.A.2 Property Data and Coefficients for Ethylene 383

15.A.3 Calculation of Flow Coefficient According to EN-ISO 4126-1 384

15.A.4 Calculation of Flow Coefficient Accounting for Real Gas Effects 385

15.A.5 Approximation of Mass Flux by an Analytical Method (Averaging Method) 386

Appendix 15.B List of Symbols 387

Subscripts 388

References 389

Appendix: International Codes and Standards for High-Pressure Vessels 391

Index 397

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Rudolf Eggers has been dealing with basic research and application of high pressure processes since 1977 when he started his industrial career at Thyssen Maschinenbau in Witten and Krupp Industrietechnik in Hamburg. As the head of the process engineering department he became responsible for the introduction of supercritical extraction plants in industrial scale. Prior to that he studied mechanical and process engineering at Technische Universität Hannover (1966 - 1971) and worked as a research assistant at the institute of energy process technique of the Technische Universität Clausthal (1971 - 1977) where he received the PhD degree in 1976. In 1984 he was appointed from industry to a professorship for high pressure processes at the Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg. Since then Rudolf Eggers
supervised a research group. His research fields are aligned to high pressure processes, evaluation of corresponding thermo physical data, interfacial phenomena and heat and mass transfer. In 1988, 1998 and 1999 Rudolf Eggers refused three further appointments from a national research institute and universities in Germany. He is member of scientific comities and author of more than 130 publications, mainly on high
pressure processes.
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“With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.”  (ETDE Energy Database, 1 March 2013)

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