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Polymer Composites, Volume 1, Macro- and Microcomposites

Sabu Thomas (Editor), Kuruvilla Joseph (Editor), S. K. Malhotra (Editor), Koichi Goda (Editor), M. S. Sreekala (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32624-2
814 pages
April 2012
Polymer Composites, Volume 1, Macro- and Microcomposites (3527326243) cover image
The first systematic reference on the topic with an emphasis on the characteristics and dimension of the reinforcement.

This first of three volumes, authored by leading researchers in the field from academia, government, industry, as well as private research institutions around the globe, focuses on macro and micro composites.

Clearly divided into three sections, the first offers an introduction to polymer composites, discussing the state of the art, new challenges, and opportunities of various polymer composite systems, as well as preparation and manufacturing techniques. The second part looks at macro systems, with an emphasis on fiber reinforced polymer composites, textile composites, and polymer hybrid composites. Likewise, the final section deals with micro systems, including micro particle reinforced polymer composites, the synthesis, surface modification and characterization of micro particulate fillers and flakes as well as filled polymer micro composites, plus applications and the recovery, recycling and life cycle analysis of synthetic polymeric composites.

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The Editors XXIII

Preface XXV

List of Contributors XXVII

Part One Introduction to Polymer Composites 1

1 Advances in Polymer Composites: Macro- and Microcomposites State of the Art, New Challenges, and Opportunities 3
Josmin P. Jose, Sant Kumar Malhotra, Sabu Thomas, Kuruvilla Joseph, Koichi Goda, and Meyyarappallil Sadasivan Sreekala

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Classification of Composites 4

1.3 Interface Characterization 14

1.4 New Challenges and Opportunities 15

References 16

2 Shock and Impact Response of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 17
Vikas Prakash

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Analytical Analysis 20

2.3 Plate-Impact Experiments on GRPs 33

2.4 Target Assembly 42

2.5 Experimental Results and Discussion 42

2.6 Summary 76

References 78

3 Interfaces in Macro- and Microcomposites 83
Haeng-Ki Lee and Bong-Rae Kim

3.1 Introduction 83

3.2 Characterization of Interfaces in Macro- and Microcomposites 85

3.3 Micromechanics-Based Analysis 87

3.4 Interfacial Damage Modeling 94

3.5 Summary 100

References 101

4 Preparation and Manufacturing Techniques for Macro- and Microcomposites 111
Tibor Czigány and Tamás Deák

4.1 Introduction 111

4.2 Thermoplastic Polymer Composites 111

4.3 Thermosetting Polymer Composites 123

4.4 Future Trends 133

References 133

Part Two Macrosystems: Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 135

5 Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Preparation, Properties, and Applications 137
Soo-Jin Park and Min-Kang Seo

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Backgrounds 138

5.3 Experimental Part 143

5.4 Results and Discussion 153

5.5 Applications 176

5.6 Conclusions 179

References 180

6 Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 185
Sebastian Heimbs and Björn Van Den Broucke

6.1 Introduction 185

6.2 Chemical Composition and Types 186

6.3 Fabrication of Glass Fibers 188

6.4 Forms of Glass Fibers 190

6.5 Glass Fiber Properties 192

6.6 Glass Fibers in Polymer Composites 196

6.7 Applications 202

6.8 Summary 204

References 205

7 Kevlar Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 209
Chapal K. Das, Ganesh C. Nayak, and Rathanasamy Rajasekar

7.1 Introduction 209

7.2 Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 210

7.3 Constituents of Polymer Composites 210

7.4 Kevlar Fiber 211

7.5 Interface 212

7.6 Factors Influencing the Composite Properties 214

7.7 Surface Modification 218

7.8 Synthetic Fiber-Reinforced Composites 220

7.9 Effect of Fluorinated and Oxyfluorinated Short Kevlar Fiber on the Properties of Ethylene Propylene Matrix Composites 222

7.10 Compatibilizing Effect of MA-g-PP on the Properties of Fluorinated and Oxyfluorinated Kevlar Fiber-Reinforced Ethylene Polypropylene Composites 230

7.11 Properties of Syndiotactic Polystyrene Composites with Surface-Modified Short Kevlar Fiber 238

7.12 Study on the Mechanical, Rheological, and Morphological Properties of Short Kevlar Fiber/s-PS Composites Effect of Oxyfluorination of Kevlar 246

7.13 Effect of Fluorinated and Oxyfluorinated Short Kevlar Fiber Reinforcement on the Properties of PC/LCP Blends 250

7.14 Simulation of Fiber Orientation by Mold Flow Technique 257

7.15 Kevlar-Reinforced Thermosetting Composites 270

References 272

8 Polyester Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 275
Dionysis E. Mouzakis

8.1 Introduction 275

8.2 Synthesis and Basic Properties of Polyester Fibers 277

8.3 Polyester Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 282

8.4 Conclusions 287

References 288

9 Nylon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 293
Valerio Causin

9.1 Introduction 293

9.2 Nylon Fibers Used as Reinforcements 294

9.3 Matrices and Applications 299

9.4 Manufacturing of Nylon-Reinforced Composites 305

9.5 Conclusions 311

References 311

10 Polyolefin Fiber- and Tape-Reinforced Polymeric Composites 315
József Karger-Kocsis and Tamás Bárány

10.1 Introduction 315

10.2 Polyolefin Fibers and Tapes 315

10.3 Polyolefin-Reinforced Thermoplastics 321

10.4 Polyolefin Fiber-Reinforced Thermosets 327

10.5 Polyolefin Fibers in Rubbers 329

10.6 Others 330

10.7 Outlook and Future Trends 330

References 331

11 Silica Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 339
Sudip Ray

11.1 Introduction 339

11.2 Silica Fiber: General Features 339

11.3 Silica Fiber-Filled Polymer Composites 347

11.4 Applications 358

11.5 New Developments 360

11.6 Concluding Remarks 361

References 361

Part Three Macrosystems: Textile Composites 363

12 2D Textile Composite Reinforcement Mechanical Behavior 365
Emmanuelle Vidal-Sallé and Philippe Boisse

12.1 Introduction 365

12.2 Mechanical Behavior of 2D Textile Composite Reinforcements and Specific Experimental Tests 366

12.3 Continuous Modeling of 2D Fabrics: Macroscopic Scale 373

12.4 Discrete Modeling of 2D Fabrics: Mesoscopic Scale 382

12.5 Conclusions and Future Trend 388

References 388

13 Three Dimensional Woven Fabric Composites 393
Wen-Shyong Kuo

13.1 Introduction 393

13.2 General Characteristics of 3D Composites 394

13.3 Formation of 3D Woven Fabrics 396

13.4 Modeling of 3D Woven Composites 407

13.5 Failure Behavior of 3D Woven Composites 412

13.6 Role of Interlacing Loops 428

13.7 Design of 3D Woven Composites 429

13.8 Conclusions 431

References 431

14 Polymer Composites as Geotextiles 435
Han-Yong Jeon

14.1 Introduction 435

14.2 Developments of Composite Geotextiles 443

14.3 Hybrid Composite Geotextiles 447

14.4 Performance Evaluation of Composite Geotextiles 462

References 467

15 Hybrid Textile Polymer Composites 469
Palanisamy Sivasubramanian, Laly A. Pothan, M. Thiruchitrambalam, and Sabu Thomas

15.1 Introduction 469

15.2 Textile Composites 470

15.3 Hybrid Textile Composites 478

15.4 Hybrid Textile Joints 479

15.5 Conclusion 480

References 480

Part Four Microsystems : Microparticle-Reinforced Polymer Composites 483

16 Characterization of Injection-Molded Parts with Carbon Black-Filled Polymers 485
Volker Piotter, Jürgen Prokop, and Xianping Liu

16.1 Introduction 485

16.2 Injection-Molded Carbon-Filled Polymers 486

16.3 Processes and Characterization 488

16.4 Mechanical Property Mapping of Carbon-Filled Polymer Composites by TPM 501

16.5 Conclusions 512

References 512

17 Carbon Black-Filled Natural Rubber Composites: Physical Chemistry and Reinforcing Mechanism 515
Atsushi Kato, Yuko Ikeda, and Shinzo Kohjiya

17.1 Introduction 515

17.2 3D-TEM Observation of Nanofiller-Loaded Vulcanized Rubber 517

17.3 Materials: CB-Filled Sulfur-Cured NR Vulcanizates 518

17.4 Relationship Between the Properties of CB-Filled Sulfur-Cured NR Vulcanizates and CB Loading 519

17.5 CB Dispersion and Aggregate/Agglomerate Structure in CB-Filled NR Vulcanizates 529

17.6 Conclusions 538

References 540

18 Silica-Filled Polymer Microcomposites 545
Sudip Ray

18.1 Introduction 545

18.2 Silica as a Filler: General Features 545

18.3 Silica-Filled Rubbers 552

18.4 Silica-Filled Thermoplastics and Thermosets 569

18.5 Concluding Remarks 571

References 572

19 Metallic Particle-Filled Polymer Microcomposites 575
Bertrand Garnier, Boudjemaa Agoudjil, and Abderrahim Boudenne

19.1 Introduction 575

19.2 Metallic Filler and Production Methods 576

19.3 Achieved Properties of Metallic Filled Polymer 577

19.4 Main Factors Influencing Properties 585

19.5 Models for Physical Property Prediction 593

19.6 Conclusion 606

References 606

20 Magnetic Particle-Filled Polymer Microcomposites 613
Natalie E. Kazantseva

20.1 Introduction 613

20.2 Basic Components of Polymer Magnetic Composites: Materials Selection 614

20.3 Overview of Methods for the Characterization of Materials in the Radiofrequency and Microwave Bands 621

20.4 Magnetization Processes in Bulk Magnetic Materials 628

20.5 Magnetization Processes in Polymer Magnetic Composites 641

20.6 Polymer Magnetic Composites with High Value of Permeability in the Radiofrequency and Microwave Bands 651

20.7 Conclusions 668

References 669

21 Mica-Reinforced Polymer Composites 673
John Verbeek and Mark Christopher

21.1 Introduction 673

21.2 Structure and Properties of Mica 674

21.3 Mechanical Properties of Mica–Polymer Composites 677

21.4 Thermal Properties 693

21.5 Other Properties 696

21.6 Modeling of Mechanical Properties 700

21.7 Conclusions 709

References 709

22 Viscoelastically Prestressed Polymeric Matrix Composites 715
Kevin S. Fancey

22.1 Introduction 715

22.2 Preliminary Investigations: Evidence of Viscoelastically Generated Prestress 716

22.3 Time–Temperature Aspects of VPPMC Technology 719

22.4 VPPMCs with Higher Fiber Content: Mechanical Properties 729

22.5 Processing Aspects of VPPMCs 733

22.6 Mechanisms for Improved Mechanical Properties in VPPMCs 737

22.7 Potential Applications 740

22.8 Summary and Conclusions 742

References 744

Part Five Applications 747

23 Applications of Macro- and Microfiller-Reinforced Polymer Composites 749
Hajnalka Hargitai and Ilona Rácz

23.1 Introduction 749

23.2 Some Features of Polymer Composites 749

23.3 Transportation 750

23.4 Biomedical Applications 757

23.5 Civil Engineering, Construction 760

23.6 Electric and Electronic Applications 767

23.7 Mechanical Engineering, Tribological Applications 769

23.8 Recreation, Sport Equipments 772

23.9 Other Applications 780

23.10 Conclusion 784

References 784

Index 791

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Sabu Thomas is a Professor of Polymer Science and Engineering at Mahatma Gandhi University (India). He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences. Thomas has published over 300 papers in peer reviewed journals on his polymer composite, membrane separation, polymer blend and alloy, and polymer recycling research and has edited three books.

Kuruvilla Joseph is a Reader at St. Berchmans' College (India). He has held a number of visiting research fellowships and has published ca. 50 papers on polymer composites and blends.
S. K. Malhotra is Chief Design Engineer and Head of the Composites Technology Centre at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. He has published over 100 journal and proceedings papers on polymer and alumina-zirconia composites.

Koichi Goda is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Yamaguchi University. His major scientific fields of interest are reliability and engineering analysis of composite materials and development and evaluation of environmentally friendly and other advanced composite materials.

M. S. Sreekala is a Senior Research Associate in the Department of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology at Cochin University of Science and Technology (India). She has published over 30 papers on polymer composites (including biodegradable and green composites) in peer reviewed journals and has held a number of Research Fellowships, including those from the Humboldt Foundation and Japan Society for Promotion of Science.

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by Sabu Thomas (Editor), Kuruvilla Joseph (Editor), S. K. Malhotra (Editor), Koichi Goda (Editor), M. S. Sreekala (Editor)
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