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Aerosols: Science and Technology

Igor Agranovski (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32660-0
492 pages
August 2010
Aerosols: Science and Technology (352732660X) cover image

Description

This self-contained handbook and ready reference examines aerosol science and technology in depth, providing a detailed insight into this progressive field. As such, it covers fundamental concepts, experimental methods, and a wide variety of applications, ranging from aerosol filtration to biological aerosols, and from the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to aerosol reactors.
Written by a host of internationally renowned experts in the field, this is an essential resource for chemists and engineers in the chemical and materials disciplines across multiple industries, as well as ideal supplementary reading in graduate level courses.
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors XIII

List of Symbols XVII

Introduction XXIX

1 Introduction to Aerosols 1
Alexey A. Lushnikov

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Aerosol Phenomenology 2

1.2.1 Basic Dimensionless Criteria 2

1.2.2 Particle Size Distributions 4

1.3 Drag Force and Diffusivity 6

1.4 Diffusion Charging of Aerosol Particles 7

1.4.1 Flux Matching Exactly 8

1.4.2 Flux Matching Approximately 9

1.4.3 Charging of a Neutral Particle 9

1.4.4 Recombination 10

1.5 Fractal Aggregates 11

1.5.1 Introduction 12

1.5.2 Phenomenology of Fractals 13

1.5.3 Possible Sources of Fractal Particles 15

1.5.4 Formation of Fractal Aggregates 16

1.5.5 Optics of Fractals 18

1.5.6 Are Atmospheric Fractals Long-Lived? 20

1.5.7 Concluding Remarks 21

1.6 Coagulation 21

1.6.1 Asymptotic Distributions in Coagulating Systems 23

1.6.2 Gelation in Coagulating Systems 26

1.7 Laser-Induced Aerosols 33

1.7.1 Formation of Plasma Cloud 33

1.7.2 Laser-Induced Gelation 34

1.8 Conclusion 36

References 37

Part I Aerosol Formation 43

2 High-Temperature Aerosol Systems 45
Arkadi Maisels

2.1 Introduction 45

2.2 Main High-Temperature Processes for Aerosol Formation 45

2.2.1 Flame Processes 47

2.2.2 Hot-Wall Processes 49

2.2.3 Plasma Processes 49

2.2.4 Laser-Induced Processes 50

2.2.5 Gas Dynamically Induced Particle Formation 50

2.3 Basic Dynamic Processes in High-Temperature Aerosol Systems 50

2.3.1 Nucleation 52

2.3.2 Coagulation/Aggregation 52

2.3.3 Surface Growth Due to Condensation 55

2.3.4 Sintering 55

2.3.5 Charging 57

2.4 Particle Tailoring in High-Temperature Processes 59

References 61

3 Aerosol Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes 65
Albert G. Nasibulin and Sergey D. Shandakov

3.1 Introduction 65

3.1.1 Carbon Nanotubes as Unique Aerosol Particles 65

3.1.2 History and Perspectives of CNT Synthesis 68

3.2 Aerosol-Unsupported Chemical Vapor Deposition Methods 70

3.2.1 The HiPco Process 70

3.2.2 Ferrocene-Based Method 71

3.2.3 Hot-Wire Generator 73

3.3 Control and Optimization of Aerosol Synthesis 74

3.3.1 On-Line Monitoring of CNT Synthesis 74

3.3.2 Individual CNTs and Bundle Separation 76

3.3.3 CNT Property Control and Nanobud Production 76

3.4 Carbon Nanotube Bundling and Growth Mechanisms 78

3.4.1 Bundle Charging 78

3.4.2 Growth Mechanism 80

3.5 Integration of the Carbon Nanotubes 82

3.6 Summary 84

Acknowledgements 84

References 84

4 Condensation, Evaporation, Nucleation 91
Alexey A. Lushnikov

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 Condensation 92

4.2.1 Continuum Transport 93

4.2.2 Free-Molecule Transport 93

4.3 Condensation in the Transition Regime 94

4.3.1 Flux-Matching Theory 95

4.3.2 Approximations 96

4.3.3 More Sophisticated Approaches 97

4.4 Evaporation 97

4.5 Uptake 99

4.5.1 Getting Started 100

4.5.2 Hierarchy of Times 101

4.5.3 Diffusion in the Gas Phase 101

4.5.4 Crossing the Interface 103

4.5.5 Transport and Reaction in the Liquid Phase 103

4.6 Balancing Fluxes 104

4.6.1 No Chemical Interaction 104

4.6.2 Second-Order Kinetics 106

4.7 Nucleation 108

4.7.1 The Szilard–Farkas Scheme 109

4.7.2 Condensation and Evaporation Rates 110

4.7.3 Thermodynamically Controlled Nucleation 111

4.7.4 Kinetically Controlled Nucleation 111

4.7.5 Fluctuation-Controlled Nucleation 113

4.8 Nucleation-Controlled Processes 114

4.8.1 Nucleation Bursts 114

4.8.2 Nucleation-Controlled Condensation 115

4.8.3 Nucleation-Controlled Growth by Coagulation 117

4.8.4 Nucleation Bursts in the Atmosphere 119

4.9 Conclusion 120

References 122

5 Combustion-Derived Carbonaceous Aerosols (Soot) in the Atmosphere: Water Interaction and Climate Effects 127
Olga B. Popovicheva

5.1 Black Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Emissions and Climate Effects 127

5.2 Physico-Chemical Properties of Black Carbon Aerosols 132

5.2.1 General Characteristics 133

5.2.2 Key Properties Responsible for Interaction with Water 137

5.3 Water Uptake by Black Carbons 140

5.3.1 Fundamentals of Water Interaction with Black Carbons 140

5.3.2 Concept of Quantification 143

5.3.3 Laboratory Approach for Water Uptake Measurements 144

5.3.4 Quantification of Water Uptake 146

5.4 Conclusions 152

Acknowledgements 153

References 153

6 Radioactive Aerosols – Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Case Study 159
Boris I. Ogorodnikov

6.1 Introduction 159

6.2 Environmental Aerosols 164

6.2.1 Dynamics of Release of Radioactive Aerosols from Chernobyl 164

6.2.2 Transport of Radioactive Clouds in the Northern Hemisphere 166

6.2.3 Observation of Radioactive Aerosols above Chernobyl 168

6.2.4 Observations of Radioactive Aerosols in the Territory around Chernobyl 171

6.2.5 Dispersity of Aerosol Carriers of Radionuclides 183

6.3 Aerosols inside the Vicinity of the ‘‘Shelter’’ Building 185

6.3.1 Devices and Methods to Control Radioactive Aerosols in the ‘‘Shelter’’ 185

6.3.2 Control of Discharge from the ‘‘Shelter’’ 185

6.3.3 Well-Boring in Search of Remaining Nuclear Fuel 186

6.3.4 Clearance of the Turbine Island of the Fourth Power Generating Unit 188

6.3.5 Strengthening of the Seats of Beams on the Roof of the ‘‘Shelter’’ 189

6.3.6 Aerosols Generated during Fires in the ‘‘Shelter’’ 191

6.3.7 Dust Control System 192

6.3.8 Control of the Release of Radioactive Aerosols through the ‘‘Bypass’’ System 192

6.3.9 Radon, Thoron and their Daughter Products in the ‘‘Shelter’’ 195

References 197

Part II Aerosol Measurement and Characterization 203

7 Applications of Optical Methods for Micrometer and Submicrometer Particle Measurements 205
Aladár Czitrovszky

7.1 Introduction 205

7.2 Optical Methods in Particle Measurements 206

7.3 Short Overview of Light Scattering Theories 208

7.4 Classification of Optical Instruments for Particle Measurements 213

7.4.1 Multi-Particle Instruments 213

7.4.2 Single-Particle Instruments 214

7.5 Development of Airborne and Liquid-borne Particle Counters and Sizers 215

7.5.1 Development of Airborne Particle Counters 216

7.5.2 Development of Liquid-borne Particle Counters 222

7.6 New Methods Used to Characterize the Electrical Charge and Density of the Particles 225

7.7 Aerosol Analyzers for Measurement of the Complex Refractive Index of Aerosol Particles 227

7.8 Comparison of Commercially Available Instruments and Analysis of the Trends of Further Developments 229

7.8.1 Portable Particle Counters 230

7.8.2 Remote Particle Counters 230

7.8.3 Multi-Particle Counters 233

7.8.4 Handheld Particle Counters 233

7.9 Conclusions 233

References 234

8 The Inverse Problem and Aerosol Measurements 241
Valery A. Zagaynov

8.1 Introduction 241

8.2 Forms of Representation of Particle Size Distribution 243

8.3 Differential and Integral Measurements 245

8.4 Differential Mobility Analysis 246

8.5 Diffusion Aerosol Spectrometry 252

8.5.1 Raw Measurement Results and their Development – Parameterization of Particle Size Distribution 254

8.5.2 Fitting of Penetration Curves 256

8.5.3 Transformation of the Integral Equation into Nonlinear Algebraic Form 257

8.5.4 Effect of Experimental Errors on Reconstruction of Particle Size Distribution 259

8.5.5 Reconstruction of Bimodal Distributions 261

8.5.6 Mathematical Approach to Reconstruct Bimodal Distribution from Particle Penetration Data 264

8.5.7 Solution of the Inverse Problem by Regularization Method 266

8.6 Conclusions 268

References 269

Part III Aerosol Removal 273

9 History of Development and Present State of Polymeric Fine-Fiber Unwoven Petryanov Filter Materials for Aerosol Entrapment 275
Bogdan F. Sadovsky

References 282

10 Deposition of Aerosol Nanoparticles in Model Fibrous Filters 283
Vasily A. Kirsch and Alexander A. Kirsch

10.1 Introduction 283

10.2 Results of Numerical Modeling of Nanoparticle Deposition in Two-Dimensional Model Filters 287

10.2.1 Fiber Collection Efficiency at High Peclet Number: Cell Model Approach 287

10.2.2 Fiber Collection Efficiency at Low Peclet Number: Row of Fibers Approach 289

10.2.3 Deposition of Nanoparticles upon Ultra-Fine Fibers 292

10.2.4 Deposition of Nanoparticles on Fibers with Non-Circular Cross-Section 294

10.2.5 Deposition of Nanoparticles on Porous and Composite Fibers 298

10.3 Penetration of Nanoparticles through Wire Screen Diffusion Batteries 302

10.3.1 Deposition of Nanoparticles in Three-Dimensional Model Filters 302

10.3.2 Theory of Particle Deposition on Screens with Square Mesh 304

10.3.3 Comparison with Experiment 305

10.4 Conclusion 310

Acknowledgements 311

References 311

11 Filtration of Liquid and Solid Aerosols on Liquid-Coated Filters 315
Igor E. Agranovski

11.1 Introduction 315

11.2 Wettable Filtration Materials 316

11.2.1 Theoretical Aspects 318

11.2.2 Practical Aspects 320

11.2.3 Inactivation of Bioaerosols on Fibers Coated by a Disinfectant 326

11.3 Non-Wettable Filtration Materials 327

11.3.1 Theoretical Aspects 327

11.3.2 Practical Aspects of Non-Wettable Filter Design 330

11.4 Filtration on a Porous Medium Submerged into a Liquid 330

11.4.1 Theoretical Approach 330

11.4.2 Application of the Technique for Viable Bioaerosol Monitoring 337

References 340

Part IV Atmospheric and Biological Aerosols 343

12 Atmospheric Aerosols 345
Lev S. Ivlev

12.1 General Concepts 345

12.2 Atmospheric Aerosols of Different Nature 348

12.2.1 Soil Aerosols 348

12.2.2 Marine Aerosols 351

12.2.3 Volcanic Aerosols 354

12.2.4 Aerosols In situ – Secondary Aerosols 358

12.2.5 Biogenic Small Gas Compounds and Aerosols 360

12.3 Temporal and Dimensional Structure of Atmospheric Aerosols 363

12.3.1 Aerosols in the Troposphere 363

12.4 Aerosols in the Stratosphere 371

References 377

13 Biological Aerosols 379
Sergey A. Grinshpun

13.1 Introduction 379

13.2 History of Bioaerosol Research 379

13.3 Main Definitions and Types of Bioaerosol Particles 381

13.4 Sources of Biological Particles and their Aerosolization 383

13.5 Sampling and Collection 384

13.5.1 Impaction 386

13.5.2 Collection into Liquid 388

13.5.3 Filter Collection 389

13.5.4 Gravitational Settling 390

13.5.5 Electrostatic Precipitation 390

13.6 Analysis 391

13.7 Real-Time Measurement of Bioaerosols 393

13.8 Purification of Indoor Air Contaminated with Bioaerosol Particles and Respiratory Protection 393

13.8.1 Air Purification 393

13.8.2 Respiratory Protection 396

References 398

14 Atmospheric Bioaerosols 407
Aleksandr S. Safatov, Galina A. Buryak, Irina S. Andreeva, Sergei E. Olkin, Irina K. Reznikova, Aleksandr N. Sergeev, Boris D. Belan and Mikhail V. Panchenko

14.1 Introduction 407

14.2 Methods of Atmospheric Bioaerosol Research 408

14.2.1 Methods and Equipment for Atmospheric Bioaerosol Sampling 409

14.2.2 Methods to Analyze the Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Bioaerosols and their Morphology 411

14.2.3 Methods Used to Detect and Characterize Microorganisms in Atmospheric Bioaerosols 416

14.3 Atmospheric Bioaerosol Studies 421

14.3.1 Time Variation of Concentrations and Composition of Atmospheric Bioaerosol Components 421

14.3.2 Spatial Variation of the Concentrations and Composition of Atmospheric Bioaerosol Components 432

14.3.3 Possible Sources of Atmospheric Bioaerosols and their Transfer in the Atmosphere 436

14.3.4 The Use of Snow Cover Samples to Analyze Atmospheric Bioaerosols 438

14.3.5 Potential Danger of Atmospheric Bioaerosols for Humans and Animals 442

14.4 Conclusion 446

References 448

Index 455

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Author Information

Prof. Agranovski is a research scientist with 24 years experience in aerosol science and nanotechnology and their applications in design and implementation of air pollution control and monitoring technologies. He has published more than 120 papers and has 5 patents to his name. He worked as a consultant for 49 companies worldwide and developed more than 30 new technologies.
Prof. Agranovski is an Editor of CLEAN-Soil, Air, Water Journal. During his career, he worked as visiting professor at a number of universities in various countries including Japan, Russia, France, USA, UK, Hong Kong, Korea and many others.
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