Wiley.com
Print this page Share

Lubricants and Lubrication, 2 Volume Set, 3rd Edition

Theo Mang (Editor), Wilfried Dresel (Editor)
ISBN: 978-3-527-32670-9
1262 pages
May 2017
Lubricants and Lubrication, 2 Volume Set, 3rd Edition (3527326707) cover image

Description

Praise for the previous edition:

“Contains something for everyone involved in lubricant technology” — Chemistry & Industry


This completely revised third edition incorporates the latest data available and reflects the knowledge of one of the largest companies active in the business. The authors take into account the interdisciplinary character of the field, considering aspects of engineering, materials science, chemistry, health and safety. The result is a volume providing chemists and engineers with a clear interdisciplinary introduction and guide to all major lubricant applications, focusing not only on the various products but also on specific application engineering criteria.

  • A classic reference work, completely revised and updated (approximately 35% new material) focusing on sustainability and the latest developments, technologies and processes of this multi billion dollar business
  • Provides chemists and engineers with a clear interdisciplinary introduction and guide to all major lubricant applications, looking not only at the various products but also at specific application engineering criteria
  • All chapters are updated in terms of environmental and operational safety. New guidelines, such as REACH, recycling alternatives and biodegradable base oils are introduced
  • Discusses the integration of micro- and nano-tribology and lubrication systems
  • Reflects the knowledge of Fuchs Petrolub SE, one of the largest companies active in the lubrication business
2 Volumes

 wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/lubricants  

See More

Table of Contents

List of Contributors XXXVII

A Word of Thanks XXXIX

Preface to the 3rd Edition XLI

Abbreviations XLIII

Volume 1

1 Lubricants and Their Market 1
Theo Mang and Apu Gosalia

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Lubricants Demand 2

1.3 Lubricants Competitor Landscape 5

1.4 Lubricant Systems 7

References 9

2 Lubricants in the Tribological System 11
Theo Mang and Christian Busch

2.1 Lubricants as Part of Tribological Research 11

2.2 The Tribological System 12

2.3 Friction 12

2.4 Wear 21

References 29

3 Rheology of Lubricants 31
Theo Mang

3.1 Viscosity 31

3.2 Influence of Temperature on Viscosity (V–T Behaviour) 33

3.3 Viscosity–Pressure Dependency 34

3.4 The Effect of Shear Rate on Viscosity 37

3.5 Special Rheological Effects 38

3.6 Viscosity Grades 39

3.7 Viscosity Measurements 42
Nael Zaki

3.8 Viscosity Measurements at High Pressure 47

References 49

4 Base Oils 51
Theo Mang and Georg Lingg

4.1 Base Oils: A Historical Review and Outlook 51

4.2 Chemical Characterization of Mineral Base Oils 52

4.3 Refining 55

4.4 Base Oil Manufacturing by Hydrogenation and Hydrocracking 62

4.5 Boiling and Evaporation Behaviour of Base Oils 73

4.6 Base Oil Categories and Evaluation of Various Petroleum Base Oils 78

References 81

5 Synthetic Base Oils 83
Wilfried Dresel

5.1 Synthetic Hydrocarbons 84

5.2 Halogenated Hydrocarbons 91

5.3 Synthetic Esters 92

5.4 Polyalkylene Glycols 98

5.5 Other Polyethers 100

5.6 Other Synthetic Base Oils 105

5.7 Comparison of Synthetic Base Oils 109

5.8 Mixtures of Synthetic Lubricants 109

References 110

6 Additives 117
Jürgen Braun

6.1 Antioxidants 118

6.2 Viscosity Modifiers 124

6.3 Pour Point Depressants (PPD) 129

6.4 Detergents and Dispersants 130

6.5 Antifoam Agents 136

6.6 Demulsifiers and Emulsifiers 137

6.7 Dyes 138

6.8 Antiwear (AW) and Extreme Pressure (EP) Additives 138

6.9 Friction Modifiers (FM) 144

6.10 Corrosion Inhibitors 145

References 151

7 Lubricants in the Environment 153
Rolf Luther

7.1 Definition of ‘Environment-Compatible Lubricants’ 153

7.2 Current Situation 156

7.3 Tests to Evaluate Biotic Potential 162

7.4 Environmental Legislation 1: Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh) 169

7.5 Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) 175

7.6 Environmental Legislation 2: Classification and Labelling of Chemicals 177

7.7 Environmental Legislation 3: Regular use 180

7.8 Environmental Legislation 4: Emissions 184

7.9 Standardization of Environment-Compatible Hydraulic Fluids 188

7.10 Environmental Seal 194

7.11 Base Fluids 214

7.12 Additives 216

7.13 Products (Examples) 218

7.14 Safety Aspects of Handling Lubricants (Working Materials) 220

7.15 Skin Problems Caused by Lubricants 225

Further Reading 232

8 Disposal of Used Lubricating Oils 237
Theo Mang

8.1 Possible Uses of Waste Oil 237

8.2 Legislative Influences on Waste Oil Collection and Reconditioning 239

8.3 Re-Refining 240

References 246

9 Lubricants for Internal Combustion Engines 249
Manfred Harperscheid

9.1 Four-Stroke Engine Oils 249

9.2 Two-Stroke Oils 278

9.3 Tractor Oils 283

9.4 Gas Engine Oils 285

9.5 Marine Diesel Engine Oils 287

References 290

10 Gear Lubrication Oils 293
Thorsten Bartels

10.1 Requirements of Gear Lubrication Oils 294

10.2 Gear Lubrication Oils for Motor Vehicles 297

10.3 Gear Lubricants for Industrial Gears 316

Wolfgang Bock

References 343

11 Hydraulic Oils 345
Wolfgang Bock

11.1 Introduction 345

11.2 Hydraulic Principle: Pascal’s Law 346

11.3 Hydraulic Systems, Circuits and Components 347

11.4 Hydraulic Fluids 353

11.5 Hydraulic System Filters 395

11.6 Machine Tool Lubrication 400

11.7 Summary 416

References 416

Further Reading 419

Books 419

Standards 419

12 Compressor Oils 421
Wolfgang Bock and Christian Puhl

12.1 Air Compressor Oils 421

12.2 Refrigeration Oils 436

References 450

13 Turbine Oils 453
Wolfgang Bock

13.1 Introduction 453

13.2 Demands on Turbine Oils – Characteristics 454

13.3 Formulation of Turbine Oils 454

13.4 Physical and Chemical Data of Turbine Oils 455

13.5 Turbine Lubricants: Description According to DIN 51515, Parts 1 and 2 473

13.6 Turbine Lubricants: Specifications 474

13.7 Turbine Oil Circuits 479

13.8 Flushing Turbine Oil Circuits 480

13.9 Monitoring and Maintenance of Turbine Oils – General 481

13.10 Turbine Oils: Evaluation of Used Oil Values – Parameters and Warning Values/Limits According to VGB Recommendation 481

13.11 Turbine Oils: Evaluation of Used Oil Values – Causes and Measures 482

13.12 Lifetime of (Steam) Turbine Oils 485

13.13 Gas Turbine Oils: Application and Requirements 486

13.14 Fire-Resistant, Water-Free Fluids for Power Station Applications 487

13.15 Lubricants for Water Turbines and Hydroelectric Plants 488

References 489

Volume 2

14 Metalworking Fluids 491
Theo Mang, Carmen Freiler, and Dietrich Hörner

14.1 Action Mechanism and Cutting Fluid Selection 492

14.2 Friction and Wear Assessment Method for the Use of Cutting Fluids 501

14.3 Water-Miscible Cutting Fluids 505

14.4 Neat Cutting Fluids 545

14.5 Machining with Geometrically Defined Cutting Edges 554

14.6 Machining with Geometric Non-Defined Cutting Edges 564

14.7 Specific Material Requirements for Machining Operations 572

14.8 Metalworking Fluid Circulation System 581

14.9 Coolant Costs 613

14.10 New Trends in Coolant Technology 619

References 631

15 Forming Lubricants 639
Theo Mang

15.1 Sheet Metal Working Lubricants 639

Theo Mang, Achim Losch, and Franz Kubicki

15.2 Lubricants for Wire, Tube and Profile Drawing 693
Theo Mang

15.3 Lubricants for Rolling 728
Theo Mang

15.4 Solid Metal Forming Lubricants: Solid Forming, Forging and Extrusion 747
Theo Mang, Wolfgang Buss

References 773

16 Lubricating Greases 781
Wilfried Dresel and Rolf-Peter Heckler

16.1 Introduction 781

16.2 Thickeners 784

16.3 Base Oils 797

16.4 Grease Structure 799

16.5 Additives 800

16.6 Manufacture of Greases 803

16.7 Grease Rheology 807

16.8 Grease Performance 808

16.9 Applications of Greases 812

16.10 Grease Market 824

16.11 Ecology and the Environment 825

16.12 Grease Tribology 827

References 827

17 Solid Lubrication 843
Christian Busch

17.1 Classification of Solid Lubricants 845

17.2 Characteristics 852

17.3 Products Containing Solid Lubricants 860

17.4 Industrial Uses of Products Containing Solid Lubricants 871

Further Reading 877

Journals 877

Standards, Reprints 879

Books 879

18 Laboratory Methods for Testing Lubricants 881
Roman Müller

18.1 Introduction 881

18.2 Density 881

18.3 Viscosity 882

18.4 Refractive Index 883

18.5 Structural Analyses 883

18.6 Flash Point 884

18.7 Surface Phenomena 884

18.8 Cloud Point, Pour Point 885

18.9 Aniline Point 885

18.10 Water Content 886

18.11 Ash Content 886

18.12 Acidity, Alkalinity 886

18.13 Ageing Tests 887

18.14 Hydrolytic Stability 888

18.15 Corrosion Tests 888

18.16 Oil Compatibility of Seals and Insulating Materials 889

18.17 Evaporation Loss 889

18.18 Analysis and Testing of Lubricating Greases 890

18.19 Elemental Analyses by Spectroscopic Methods 894

18.20 List of Equivalent Standardized Methods for Testing Lubricants 896

References 901

19 Mechanical–Dynamic Test Methods and Tribology 903
Thorsten Bartels

19.1 Tribological System Categories within Mechanical–Dynamic Tests 906

19.2 Simple Tribological Mechanical–Dynamic Test Machines and Test Methods 907

19.3 Mechanical–Dynamic Tests for Gearbox and Transmission Application 920

19.4 Mechanical–Dynamic Tests for Internal Combustion Engines 968

19.5 Hydraulic Pump and Circuit Design 1009

19.6 Interpretation and Precision of Tribological Mechanical–Dynamic Testing 1041

Acknowledgements 1041

References 1041

20 Lubrication Systems 1053
Theo Mang

20.1 Introduction 1053

20.2 The Taxonomy of Centralized Lubrication Systems DIN 24271 Part 1 and DIN ISO 5170 1054

20.4 Circulating Lubrication Systems 1061

20.5 Special Applications 1065

Reference 1088

21 Removal of Lubricants: Industrial Cleaners 1089
Achim Losch

21.1 Introduction to Industrial Cleaning 1089

21.2 Substrates (Workpieces) 1090

21.3 Contamination: Soil 1091

21.4 Mechanisms of Aqueous Cleaning 1093

21.5 Detection and Control of Cleaning Result 1095

21.6 Cleaning Methods and Equipment 1098

21.7 Aqueous Cleaners 1108

21.8 Solvent Cleaners 1115

21.9 Maintenance of Cleaner Systems 1119

References 1122

Index 1125

See More

Author Information

Theo Mang recently retired from his long term position at Fuchs, Germany, and is still active in the field. He obtained his diploma for mining engineering and his PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Clausthal, Germany. In 1967 he joined Fuchs in Mannheim, Germany, becoming head of the technical department in 1980 and a member of the Executive Board of the global Fuchs Group from 1983 until 2001. Professor Mang is recipient of the Georg Vogelpohl Medal, highest award of the German Society of Tribology. Furthermore, he authored more than 80 scientific publications on the topic of lubrication. In 2013, he was honored with the Federal Cross of Merit by the German Federal President Joachim Gauck for the successful research and development, his cultural activities and generally for his lifework.

Wilfried Dresel is responsible for the development of lubricating greases at Fuchs, Germany. He received his diploma in chemistry 1972 at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, and was awarded his doctorate 1976 in carbosilane chemistry. His industrial career began 1977 in the field of preparative organic and pharmaceutical chemistry. From 1979 to 1983 he worked for a small company on lubricants for fine mechanical instruments and then went on to join Fuchs. Professor Dresel has authored 35 scientific papers and a number of contributions to books.
See More

New to This Edition

- update on lubricants and their market in 2005

- new chapter on nanotribology

- new synthetic base oils

- environmental legislation update

- new environmentally friendly lubricants

- new engine oil classifications: ACEA 2002 and 2004, BMW, DAF, Deutz, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, MTU, Opel/Saab/GM, Scania, Volkswagen,Volvo,

- update of automotive and industrial gear oil specifications

- new lubricants for air compressors

- new developments in solid lubrication
See More

Reviews

"contains something for everyone involved in lubricant technology" Chemistry & Industry

"Overall, there is a wealth of information in this volume, which will undoubtedly be a valuable addition to the bookshelves of anyone working in this area." Chemistry & Industry
See More

Related Titles

Back to Top